The world athletics governing body suspended Russia on Friday from participating in global track and field events because of alleged state-sponsored doping.
The International Association of Athletics Federations voted 22 to 1 in favor of provisional sanctions on Russia. This includes banning the Russian track and field team from competing in the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.
IAAF President Sebastian Coe calls it the toughest sanction that can be applied at this time.
"This has been a shameful wakeup call and we are clear that cheating at any level will not be tolerated. The whole system has failed the athletes, not just in Russia but around the world."
The IAAF says Russia will have to fulfill a list of new criteria still to be drawn up in order to be reinstated.
A report this week by the World Anti-Doping Agency concluded that the Russian athletic federation and anti-drug agency colluded with athletes who took banned performance-enactment drugs. Evidence of positive drug tests were destroyed.
The report called it a "deeply-rooted culture of cheating" by the Russians.
President Vladimir Putin has ordered the country's own internal investigation.
Russian Sports Minister Vitaliy Mutko said Friday the IAAF was under a lot of pressure to sanction Russia. But he said Russian officials will do all they can to see that Russian athletes can compete at the 2016 summer games.