News

    Kenya's Success in Controlling AIDS is Example for Africa

    Derek Kilner

    In its recently released annual report on the global AIDS epidemic, the United Nations lowered its estimates of the numbers of people infected worldwide by 6.5 million. The U.N. says most of the decline reflects changes in the methodology for measuring the extent of the disease. But as Derek Kilner reports for VOA from Nairobi, Kenya stood out as one of the few cases where there has been a genuine easing of the epidemic.

    New figures show that the percentage of people in Kenya living with the AIDS virus fell to 5.1 percent in 2006, down from 5.9 percent a year earlier and 9 percent in the mid-1990s.

    The sustained progress, experts say, is largely a product of widespread changes in sexual behavior. Ruth Nduati, a professor of pediatrics at the University of Nairobi, says one such change has been the age at which girls become sexually active.

    "Among young women there's been a very definite increase in age of sexual debut. It's now at 20 years. It used to be as low as 15 years, several years ago. This takes women out of a pivotal time when they are very, very vulnerable to STDs and HIV," said Nduati.

    Other significant behavioral shifts include a decrease in the number of sexual partners, especially for men, and a rise in the use of condoms.

    In 1999, Kenya's government declared AIDS a national emergency, and the issue was highly visible in the 2002 election that brought President Mwai Kibaki to office.

    The government's efforts are visible in the number of Kenyans receiving antiretroviral treatment, which grew from 3,000 in 2002 to 118,000 in 2006. Similarly, over 400,000 people received voluntary counseling and testing, or VCT, in 2006, up from only 1,000 seven years ago.

    The government's focus on HIV/AIDS has been bolstered by large infusions of cash from foreign donors. Kenya, for example, received over $208 million from America's PEPFAR program in 2006, second only to South Africa.

    Boaz Cheluget, head of monitoring and evaluation at Kenya's National AIDS Control Council, says one of the main reasons Kenya has been able to translate the attention and money into successful programs is that the country's work force is highly skilled.

    "Kenya has an advantage," said said Cheluget. "I think the quality of staff and service provision in any sector is high, and so when we introduce something the implementation is of quality. I have been to many countries, and I can see there are quite a lot of gaps in terms of skilled workforce, in terms of performance, in terms of governance."

    Cheluget says the country's high literacy rate also contributes to the success of projects implemented at the local level.

    In the run-up to World AIDS Day on December 1, Kenya has been holding a number of events to encourage testing. Patrick Obath, managing director for Shell Oil in Kenya, was one of the many business leaders participating at one such event in Nairobi on November 26.

    "We have had HIV/AIDS programs at work since 2002. We have had a policy which was piloted at Kenya Shell and has now been adopted globally by Shell. And in the last three years when we have had VCTs at work, we have had about a 98 percent uptake," said Obath.

    Education efforts have also expanded recently, bolstered by the introduction of free primary education in 2003, and the corresponding rise in school attendance. General knowledge of HIV in Kenya is now nearly universal.

    But with some 230 people still dying every day from AIDS and antiretroviral therapy going to fewer than half of those who need it, AIDS remains a serious challenge for Kenya.

    And the country's success in controlling the epidemic also presents another cause for concern for some experts, including Dr. Nduati.

    "The challenge is that every day you have a new cohort of youngsters who haven't had the experience of seeing an AIDS epidemic visibly," said Dr. Nduati. "Young people today have seen AIDS in a visible way, it's a real message. When the epidemic is not so visible because we've done great work in reducing it, then you will find it harder to convince youngsters of behavior change."

    Cheluget fears a drop in concern may also extend to the political sphere. Unlike in 2002, AIDS has not been a major issue in the election campaign that is currently gaining public attention.

    "In the parties that are competing now, I am not seeing mention of HIV. Maybe there is quite some complacency," said Cheluget. "Many parties, they haven't focused. They are saying they are going to deliver for people. There is no mention of HIV/AIDS"

    And there is a concern about the financial sustainability of Kenya's AIDS programs. The scaling up of treatment, testing, equipment, and staff has been expensive. And while the government has made an effort to contribute funds for such activities, over 98 percent of the bill is being paid by foreign donors.

    This forum has been closed.
    Comments
         
    There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    German Artists to Memorialize Refugees With Life Jacket Exhibiti
    X
    Hamada Elsaram
    February 05, 2016 4:30 PM
    Sold in every kind of shop in some Turkish port towns, life jackets have become a symbol of the refugee crisis that brought a million people to Europe in 2015.  On the shores of Lesbos, Greece, German artists collect discarded life jackets as they prepare an art installation they plan to display in Germany.  For VOA, Hamada Elrasam has this report from Lesbos, Greece.
    Video

    Video German Artists to Memorialize Refugees With Life Jacket Exhibit

    Sold in every kind of shop in some Turkish port towns, life jackets have become a symbol of the refugee crisis that brought a million people to Europe in 2015.  On the shores of Lesbos, Greece, German artists collect discarded life jackets as they prepare an art installation they plan to display in Germany.  For VOA, Hamada Elrasam has this report from Lesbos, Greece.
    Video

    Video E-readers Help Ease Africa's Book Shortage

    Millions of people in Africa can't read, and there's a chronic shortage of books. A non-profit organization called Worldreader is trying to help change all that one e-reader at a time. VOA’s Deborah Block tells us about a girls' school in Nairobi, Kenya where Worldreader is making a difference.
    Video

    Video Genius Lets World Share Its Knowledge

    Inspired by crowdsourcing companies like Wikipedia, Genius allows anyone to edit anything on the web, using its web annotation tool
    Video

    Video Former Drug CEO Martin Shkreli Angers US Lawmakers

    A former U.S. pharmaceutical business executive has angered lawmakers by refusing to explain why he raised the price of a life-saving pill by 5,000 percent. Martin Shkreli was removed from a congressional hearing on Thursday after citing his Fifth Amendment right to stay silent. Zlatica Hoke has more.
    Video

    Video Super Bowl TV Commercials are Super Business for Advertisers

    The Super Bowl, the championship clash between the two top teams in American Football, is the most-watched sporting event of the year, and advertisers are lining up and paying big bucks to get their commercials on the air. In fact, the TV commercials during the Super Bowl have become one of the most anticipated and popular features of the event. VOA's Brian Allen has a sneak peek of what you can expect to see when the big game goes to commercial break, and the real entertainment begins.
    Video

    Video In Philippines, Mixed Feelings About Greater US Military Presence

    In the Philippines, some who will be directly affected by a recent Supreme Court decision clearing the way for more United States troop visits are having mixed reactions.  The increased rotations come at a time when the Philippines is trying to build up its military in the face of growing maritime assertiveness from China.  From Bahile, Palawan on the coast of the South China Sea, Simone Orendain has this story.
    Video

    Video Microcephaly's Connection to Zika: Guilty Until Proven Innocent

    The Zika virus rarely causes problems for the people who get it, but it seems to be having a devastating impact on babies whose mothers are infected with Zika. VOA's Carol Pearson has more.
    Video

    Video Solar Innovation Provides Cheap, Clean Energy to Kenya Residents

    In Kenya, a company called M-Kopa Solar is providing clean energy to more than 300,000 homes across East Africa by allowing customers to "pay-as-you-go" via their cell phones. As Lenny Ruvaga reports from Kangemi, customers pay a small deposit for a solar unit and then pay less than a dollar a day to get clean energy to light up their homes or businesses.
    Video

    Video Stunning Artworks Attract Record Crowds, Thanks to Social Media

    A new exhibit at the oldest art museum in America is shattering attendance records. Thousands of visitors are lining up to see nine giant works of art that have gotten a much-deserved shot of viral marketing. The 150-year-old Smithsonian American Art Museum has never had a response quite like this. VOA's Julie Taboh reports.
    Video

    Video Apprenticeships Put Americans on Path Back to Work

    Trying to get more people into the U.S. workforce, the Obama administration last year announced $175 million in grants towards apprenticeship programs. VOA White House correspondent Aru Pande went inside one training center outside of Washington that has gained national recognition for helping put people on the path to employment.
    Video

    Video New Material May Reduce Concussion Effects

    As the 2016 National Football League season reaches its summit at the Super Bowl this coming Sunday (2/7), scientists are trying to learn how to more effectively protect football players from dangerous and damaging concussions. Researchers at Cardiff and Cambridge Universities say their origami-based material may solve the problem. VOA’s George Putic reports.
    Video

    Video Saudi Arabian Women's Sports Chip Away at Stereotypes

    Saudi Arabian female athletes say that sports are on the front line of busting traditions that quash women’s voices, both locally and internationally. In their hometown of Jeddah, a group of basketball players say that by connecting sports to health issues, they are encouraging women and girls to get out of their homes and participate in public life. VOA’s Heather Murdock reports.
    Video

    Video A Year Later, Fortunes Mixed for Syrians Forging New Lives in Berlin

    In April of last year, VOA followed the progress of six young Syrian refugees -- four brothers and their two friends -- as they made their way from Libya to Italy by boat, and eventually to Germany. Reporter Henry Ridgwell caught up with the refugees again in Berlin, as they struggle to forge new lives amid the turmoil of Europe's refugee crisis.
    Video

    Video Zika Virus May be Hard to Stop

    With the Zika virus spreading rapidly, the World Health Organization Monday declared Zika a global health emergency. As Alberto Pimienta reports, for many governments and experts, the worst is yet to come.