News / Health

Blocking Pain at its Source

Research for new painkiller finds inspiration in chili peppers

Inspired by chili peppers, researchers are working toward a painkiller that could stop the brain from registering the presence of pain.
Inspired by chili peppers, researchers are working toward a painkiller that could stop the brain from registering the presence of pain.

Multimedia

Audio

Anyone who has ever had to recover from surgery or a serious injury was probably grateful for the powerful narcotics doctors prescribed to help ease the pain. But all these medications do is dull the brain's perception of pain.

Your brain registers pain through neurons, special cells that wind through the body. When you touch boiling water, for example, get a cut, or even exercise too much, a special receptor on the neuron is activated, sending a signal to the brain — that hurts!.

This much scientists knew. However, they were not clear on how that receptor was activated when this kind of painful event occurred.

The chili pepper model

University of Texas researcher Kenneth Hargreaves says they got an important clue from chili peppers.

He explains that, while people think of the capsaicin from chili peppers as a spice, "it is actually a selective drug. It really produces its effects primarily by just activating the so-called capsaicin receptor."

When we eat chili peppers, we feel a burning sensation. That feeling is caused by the capsaicin molecules in the peppers activating the capsaicin receptors on our tongue — the more capsaicin, the hotter the pepper.

In the course of an entirely different experiment, Hargreaves and his team of researchers discovered that the skin produces its own capsaicin-like molecules, in response to pain.

"We took isolated skin biopsies from laboratory mice, exposed those isolated skin biopsies to temperatures of 43 degrees or 48 degrees, and then we looked at what was being released from the skin under those conditions." Heat typically becomes painful at about 47 degrees Celsius.

When the skin samples were heated to 48 degrees, they produced this capsaicin-like molecule into a solution. Then, Hargreaves says, the researchers applied the solution to mice neurons; some with the capsaicin-receptor and some that had been genetically modified to eliminate that receptor.

"The ability of these substances to activate pain neurons was totally dependent upon capsaicin receptor," says Hargreaves.

A new approach to treating pain

Hargreaves says this is a huge discovery, one that could fundamentally change how doctors treat pain. "Now that we have discovered the endogenous capsaicin molecules, for the first time, we can block their synthesis and therefore we can treat pain at its cause."

Narcotics, the most powerful drugs currently available to fight pain, simply dull the brain's perception of it. But if a medication can block the capsaicin-like molecule from reaching the neuron, it could stop the brain from ever registering there was any pain to begin with.

Hargreaves and his team are already in the process of developing two classes of drugs that do just that. One would stop the body from producing the capsaicin molecule. Another would soak it up, before it reached the receptor on the neuron.

And crucially, these drugs do not seem to have the same potential to become addictive, the way narcotics do. Hargreaves says the first class of drugs could begin clinical tests in humans within the next six months.

You May Like

At Khmer Rouge Court, Long-Awaited Verdict Approaches

First phase of trial, which is coming to an end, has focused on forced exodus of Phnom Penh in 1975 - and now many are hopeful justice will be served More

Video When Fighting Eases, Gazans Line Up at Bakeries

When there is a lull in the conflict, residents who have been hunkered down in their apartments rush out to stock up on food and other necessities More

Video Information War Rages Alongside Real One in Ukraine

Downing of Malaysian airliner, allegations of cross-border shelling move information war in war-torn country to a new level More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Information War Rages Alongside Real One in Ukrainei
X
Al Pessin
July 31, 2014 8:13 PM
The downing of the Malaysian airliner two weeks ago, and allegations that Russians are shelling Ukrainian troops across the border, have moved the information war swirling around the Ukrainian conflict to a new level. VOA's Al Pessin reports from Kyiv.
Video

Video Information War Rages Alongside Real One in Ukraine

The downing of the Malaysian airliner two weeks ago, and allegations that Russians are shelling Ukrainian troops across the border, have moved the information war swirling around the Ukrainian conflict to a new level. VOA's Al Pessin reports from Kyiv.
Video

Video When Fighting Eases, Gazans Line Up at Bakeries

When there is a lull in the conflict in Gaza, residents who have been hunkered down in their apartments rush out to stock up on food and other necessities. Probably the most important destination is the local bakery. VOA’s Scott Bobb reports from Gaza City.
Video

Video US-Funded Program Offers Honduran Children Alternative to Illegal Immigration

President Obama and Central American leaders recently agreed to come up with a plan to address poverty and crime in the region that is fueling the surge of young migrants trying to illegally enter the United States. VOA’s Brian Padden looks at one such program in Honduras - funded in part by the United States - which gives street kids not only food and safety but a chance for a better life without, crossing the border.
Video

Video 'Fab Lab' Igniting Revolution in Kenya

The University of Nairobi’s Science and Technology Park is banking on 3-D prototyping to spark a manufacturing revolution in the country. Lenny Ruvaga has more for from Nairobi's so-called “FabLab” for VOA.
Video

Video Gazans in Shelled School Sought Shelter

Israel's air and ground assault against Hamas-led fighters in Gaza has forced many Palestinians to flee their homes, seeking safety. But safe places are hard to find, as VOA’s Scott Bobb reports from Jabaliya.
Video

Video Rapid Spread of Ebola in West Africa Prompts Global Alert

Across West Africa, health officials are struggling to keep up with what the World Health Organization describes as the worst ebola outbreak on record. The virus has killed hundreds of people this year. U.S. President Barack Obama and other world leaders are watching the developments closely as they weigh what actions, if any, are needed to help contain the disease.
Video

Video Michelle Obama: Young Africans Need to Embrace Women's Rights

U.S. first lady Michelle Obama urged some of Africa's best and brightest to advocate for women's rights in their home countries. As VOA's Pam Dockins explains, Obama spoke to some 500 participants of the Young African Leaders Initiative, a six-week U.S.-based training and development program.
Video

Video Immigrant Influx on Texas Border Heats Up Political Debate

Immigrants from Central America continue to cross the U.S.-Mexico border in south Texas, seeking asylum in the United States, as officials grapple with ways to deal with the problem and provide shelter for thousands of minors among the illegal border crossers. As VOA's Greg Flakus reports from Houston, the issue is complicated by internal U.S. politics and U.S. relations with the troubled nations that immigrants are fleeing.
Video

Video Study: Latino Students Most Segregated in California

Even though legal school segregation ended in the United States 60 years ago, one study finds segregation still occurs in the U.S. based on income and race. The University of California Los Angeles Civil Rights Project finds that students in California are more segregated by race than ever before, especially Latinos. Elizabeth Lee reports for VOA from Los Angeles.

AppleAndroid