News / Africa

    Egyptian Civilians Caught in Military Tribunals

    Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak during his trial at the police academy in Cairo, August 15, 2011
    Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak during his trial at the police academy in Cairo, August 15, 2011
    Elizabeth Arrott

    Egyptian protesters who ended the presidency of Hosni Mubarak continue to endure one legacy of the past - an all-encompassing emergency law.  Unlike Mubarak, who is on trial in a civilian court, thousands of civilians face military tribunals.

    The dismantling of Egypt's emergency law has been a key demand of anti-government protesters, and the current military rulers say they are considering its demise.

    But human rights groups argue that actions speak louder than words and note that some 10,000 Egyptians have been put before military tribunals in the months since the January uprising.  That is more, they say, than during the whole of Mr. Mubarak's 29-year rule.

    The government counters that the military courts, which under emergency law are allowed to try civilians, are now used only for common criminals who undermined national security during the political unrest.  It is a point adamantly rejected by political activists like Ibrahim El Houdaiby.

    "Those are not thugs who are being tried via military tribunals," said El Houdaiby. "Those are our friends, our comrades, our brothers and sisters. People who have been demonstrating on the street. People who have been active and have managed to oust former President Mubarak."

    The secretive nature of the military courts makes it hard to know the exact status of each case. Most defendants have no access to lawyers or others on the outside.

    Certainly, criminal acts appear to have been committed during the uprising -- an event seen in real time by millions around the world.  

    But people also witnessed the roundup of political protesters, during raids on Tahrir Square sit-ins in recent months, and at demonstrations outside the Israeli embassy in May.

    Political activist El Houdaiby finds the reliance on tribunals for these cases particularly galling, given the treatment of members of the old guard.

    "If former president Mubarak, who has allegedly killed over 800 Egyptians, ordered the death of over 800 Egyptians in a few days, not to speak of the 30 years and crimes therein, is now standing in front of a civilian court, it is inconceivable that we would accept civilians standing before a military tribunal," he said.

    One activist group, which calls itself "No to Military Tribunals," has met with government officials to demand all civilian cases be moved out of the military, which has lower standards for conviction and blocks the appeal process.

    In several cases, the state has obliged. But the vast majority of those arrested remain in the military system, where the detentions themselves give rise to concern.

    Human rights groups allege that those held under emergency law face some of the abuses of the former government, in particular beatings and torture.  Authorities deny the charges, but defend one controversial practice - the administration of what are called "virginity tests" to female prisoners. Activists decry the practice as a rights violation. Officials say it is to protect security personnel from accusations of rape.

    A political science professor of the American University in Cairo, Said Sadek, says the actions of the interim government are not surprising in a time of continuing instability, and show that even after a revolution, political culture is slow to adapt.

    "They are still using the old tactics of the old regime in trying to scare people away from taking to the streets," said Sadek. "It will take time before this political culture changes and I think if the emergency laws are lifted and you have an elected parliament, a new constitution, a permanent cabinet, an elected president, the new political system will be more democratic and respecting human rights."

    Such a future is, at the very best, months away, leaving many who fought for a new Egypt still suffering the worst excesses of the old.  

    And activist El Houdaiby says it is not just pro-democracy demonstrators who are affected.

    "I have seen them from across the political spectrum. I have seen them from the [Muslim] Brotherhood," he said. "I have seen them from the Gamaa Islamiya and all Islamist factions and even from ordinary Egyptians.  I don't want to make this a classification between revolutionists and Egyptians, because we are all civilians at the end of the day and everybody deserves a civilian court."

    As for Mr. Mubarak, who appeared in court again Monday on charges that also include corruption, there may be practical reasons he is being treated as a civilian.

    "Internationally they do not recognize ruling of military courts, said political analyst Sadek. "And if there is a court ruling that would require the president to bring money from abroad, they need a civilian court ruling."

    On the other hand, Sadek argues, it could also be a stalling tactic by the interim government in a politically sensitive case. Civilian cases can be delayed - Mr. Mubarak's is adjourned until September - and the appeals process is lengthy.  It is a far cry from the swift and often irrevocable justice handed down by military tribunals.

    You May Like

    Saudi Arabia’s New Female Politicians in the Other Room 

    Many in Saudi Arabia say elected representatives should share unsegregated spaces; according to a recent survey, more than half the Saudi population, both men and women, prefer to work in a segregated place

    Russia Not ‘Apologetic’ for Syria Airstrikes

    With Moscow criticized for targeting armed opponents of President Assad, Russia’s UN envoy says his country ‘acting in a very transparent manner’

    Pakistan Warns of Islamic State's Growing Reach

    Aftab Sultan, General Director General of Intelligence Bureau (IB), briefed Senate Committee in closed hearing, saying that IS-linked groups have been expanding in Pakistan

    This forum has been closed.
    Comments
         
    There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

    By the Numbers

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    Russia's Car Sales Shrink Overall, But Luxury and Economy Models See Growthi
    X
    February 10, 2016 5:54 AM
    Car sales in Russia dropped by more than a third in 2015 because of the country's economic woes. But, at the extreme ends of the car market, luxury vehicles and some economy brands are actually experiencing growth. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Moscow.
    Video

    Video Russia's Car Sales Shrink Overall, But Luxury and Economy Models See Growth

    Car sales in Russia dropped by more than a third in 2015 because of the country's economic woes. But, at the extreme ends of the car market, luxury vehicles and some economy brands are actually experiencing growth. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Moscow.
    Video

    Video Civil Rights Pioneer Remembers Struggle for Voting Rights

    February is Black History Month in the United States. The annual, month-long national observance pays tribute to important people and events that shaped the history of African Americans. VOA's Chris Simkins reports how one man fought against discrimination to help millions of blacks obtain the right to vote
    Video

    Video Jordanian Theater Group Stages Anti-Terrorism Message

    The lure of the self-styled “Islamic State” has many parents worried about their children who may be susceptible to the organization’s online propaganda. Dozens of Muslim communities in the Middle East are fighting back -- giving young adults alternatives to violence. One group in Jordan is using dramatic expression a send a family message. Mideast Broadcasting Network correspondent Haider Al Abdali shared this report with VOA. It’s narrated by Bronwyn Benito
    Video

    Video Migrant Crisis Fuels Debate Over Britain’s Future in EU

    The migrant crisis in Europe is fueling the debate in Britain ahead of a referendum on staying in the European Union that may be held this year. Prime Minister David Cameron warns that leaving the EU could lead to thousands more migrants arriving in the country. Meanwhile, tension is rising in Calais, France, where thousands of migrants are living in squalid camps. VOA's Henry Ridgwell reports.
    Video

    Video Valentine's Day Stinks for Lebanese Clowns

    This weekend, on Valentine's Day in Lebanon, love is not the only thing in the air. More than half a year after the country's trash crisis began, the stink of uncollected garbage remains on the streets. Step forward "Clown Me In," a group of clowns who use their skills for activism. Before the most romantic day of the year the clowns have released their unusual take on love in Lebanon -- in a bid to keep the pressure up and get the trash off the streets. John Owens reports from Beirut.
    Video

    Video Families Flee Aleppo for Kurdish Regions in Syria

    Not all who flee the fighting in Aleppo are trying to cross the border into Turkey. A VOA reporter caught up with several families heading for Kurdish-held areas of northern Syria.
    Video

    Video Rocky Year Ahead for Nigeria Amid Oil Price Crash

    The global fall in the price of oil has rattled the economies of many petroleum exporters, and Africa’s oil king Nigeria is no exception. As Chris Stein reports from Lagos, analysts are predicting a rough year ahead for the continent’s top producer of crude.
    Video

    Video 'No Means No' Program Targets Sexual Violence in Kenya

    The organizers of an initiative to reduce and stop rape in the informal settlements around Kenya's capital say their program is having marked success. Girls are taking self-defense classes while the boys are learning how to protect the girls and respect them. Lenny Ruvaga reports from Nairobi.
    Video

    Video Chocolate Lovers Get a Sweet History Lesson

    Observed in many countries around the world, Valentine’s Day is sometimes celebrated with chocolate festivals. But at a festival near Washington, the visitors experience a bit more than a sugar rush. They go on a sweet journey through history. VOA’s June Soh takes us to the festival.
    Video

    Video 'Smart' Bandages Could Heal Wounds More Quickly

    Simple bandages are usually seen as the first line of attack in healing small to moderate wounds and burns. But scientists say new synthetic materials with embedded microsensors could turn bandages into a much more valuable tool for emergency physicians. VOA’s George Putic reports.
    Video

    Video Researchers Use 3-D Printer to Produce Transplantable Body Parts

    Human organ transplants have become fairly common around the world in the past few decades. Researchers at various universities are coordinating their efforts to find solutions -- including teams at the University of Pennsylvania and Rice University in Houston that are experimenting with a 3-D printer -- to make blood vessels and other structures for implant. As VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from Houston, they are also using these artificial body parts to seek ways of defeating cancerous tumors.
    Video

    Video Helping the Blind 'See' Great Art

    There are 285 million blind and visually impaired people in the world who are unable to enjoy visual art at a museum. One New York photographer is trying to fix this situation by making tangible copies of the world’s masterpieces. VOA correspondent Victoria Kupchinetsky was there as visually impaired people got a feel for great art. Joy Wagner narrates her report.
    Video

    Video German Artists to Memorialize Refugees With Life Jacket Exhibit

    Sold in every kind of shop in some Turkish port towns, life jackets have become a symbol of the refugee crisis that brought a million people to Europe in 2015.  On the shores of Lesbos, Greece, German artists collect discarded life jackets as they prepare an art installation they plan to display in Germany.  For VOA, Hamada Elrasam has this report from Lesbos, Greece.
    Video

    Video E-readers Help Ease Africa's Book Shortage

    Millions of people in Africa can't read, and there's a chronic shortage of books. A non-profit organization called Worldreader is trying to help change all that one e-reader at a time. VOA’s Deborah Block tells us about a girls' school in Nairobi, Kenya where Worldreader is making a difference.