News / Science & Technology

Genetically-Modified Rainbow Trout Could Boost Aquaculture

Comparing a standard grown rainbow trout (left) and a genetically-modified rainbow trout (right). Both fish are the same age.
Comparing a standard grown rainbow trout (left) and a genetically-modified rainbow trout (right). Both fish are the same age.

For many years millions of people around the world have been fed by genetically-modified crops.  Soon, some food animals will be genetically-modified as well, to be larger and grow more efficiently to feed a rapidly growing population.  
At a laboratory in Rhode Island, rainbow trout much larger than usual are already being produced.

The two rainbow trout (pictured above) are the same age and were raised in the same tank.  But the larger one has been genetically modified. 

"You can see this enhanced muscling and these are the parent stock,"  Professor Terry Bradley explained. Bradley leads the research at [the Department of fisheries and veterinary science at] the University of Rhode Island. "The other fish on the bottom, you can see it doesn't have the increased muscle mass.  So we know this fish has about 20 percent more muscle mass than the standard fish has."

The process starts in a laboratory.  Over the last four years, Dr. Bradley has injected 20,000 rainbow trout eggs with a DNA variation which inhibits a protein that restricts muscle growth.

"Each egg and the micro pump is set to deliver 5 nano-liters of DNA which you cannot see it.  We put dye in it, so all you see is this tiny little dot inside the egg, of green food coloring, and that's the only way you know it has been injected," he said.

In a normal-sized trout, a genetically-controlled protein called "Myostatin" keeps the fish from growing beyond a certain size.

Dr. Bradley's research shows that altering the gene that produces Myostatin seems to result in more muscle mass

"We inject them into the egg, so each egg gets injected with a little bit of DNA," he says, "and if you get lucky a bit of that gets incorporated into the genome of the developing embryo and that develops into a fish."

Once the eggs hatch they start their journey through a series of tanks in this aquaculture research facility.  But from all the thousands of injected eggs, only 300 fish so far have carried the modified gene.

The research will continue for a few more years before a larger and more efficiently-growing rainbow trout can move on to the commercial markets.  Bradley says the final goal is to increase the overall efficiency of aquaculture.

"For example where it typically may take 1.2 kilogram of feed to produce one kilogram of fish we hope that by inhibiting Myostatin we hope that one kilogram of food will produce one kilogram of fish," Bradley said.

Professor Bradley's study has been funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  

"The purpose of understanding muscle growth would be, first, to produce that muscle in a more efficient and more sustainable manner, that is to produce more meet for consumption with less input of resources, less energy, less feed, less labor input," stated Mark Mirando, who is with the Department's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 

And perhaps, he says, with better taste or more nutrients. Worldwide, the fish most commonly produced through aquaculture are catfish and tilapia, both freshwater species.  But salmonid species like salmon and trout are rapidly becoming more popular in the industry.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture says the value of aquaculture production rose to nearly $1 billion in the U.S.over the past 20 years, mostly due to growing demand for fish in general and harvesting restrictions on wild fish.
Mirando says the rapid growth of aquaculture is linked to population growth.

"The demand for seafood in the U.S. and worldwide is rapidly increasing but the ability of the oceans to supply that food, even at the current levels, disregarding population increases and increases in demand; the ability of the oceans to supply that is diminishing," Mirando said.

Mirando dismisses concerns about genetic modifications, pointing out that humans have already genetically modified many plants and animals through centuries of selective breeding.  The most common examples, he says, are dogs, which range in size from Chihuahuas to great Danes.

Comparing a standard grown rainbow trout (left) and a genetically-modified rainbow trout (right). Both fish are the same age.

You May Like

Karzai's Legacy: Missed Opportunities?

Afghanistan's president leaves behind a much different nation than the one he inherited, yet his legacy from 13 years in power is getting mixed reviews More

US Urges Restraint in Hong Kong Protests

Protesters angered by Beijing's decision to only approve candidates that it sanctions for Hong Kong's leadership elections in 2017 More

Archive of Forgotten UCLA Speeches Offers Snapshot of History

Recordings of prominent voices in social change, politics, science and literature from 1960s, early 1970s now available on YouTube More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Treasure Hunters Seek 'Hidden Treasure' in Central Kenyai
X
Gabe Joselow
September 29, 2014 6:20 PM
Could a cave in a small village in central Kenya be the site of buried treasure? A rumor of riches, left behind by colonialists, has some residents dreaming of wealth, while others see it as a dangerous hoax. VOA's Gabe Joselow has the story.
Video

Video Treasure Hunters Seek 'Hidden Treasure' in Central Kenya

Could a cave in a small village in central Kenya be the site of buried treasure? A rumor of riches, left behind by colonialists, has some residents dreaming of wealth, while others see it as a dangerous hoax. VOA's Gabe Joselow has the story.
Video

Video Iran's Rouhani Skeptical on Syria Strikes

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani expressed skepticism Friday that U.S.-led airstrikes in Iraq and Syria could crush Islamic State militants. From New York, VOA’s Margaret Besheer reports the president was also hopeful that questions about Iran’s nuclear program could be resolved soon.
Video

Video US House Speaker: Congress Should Debate Authorization Against IS

As wave after wave of U.S. airstrikes target Islamic State militants, the speaker of the Republican-controlled House of Representatives says he would be willing to call Congress back into session to debate a formal, broad authorization for the use of military force. VOA’s Michael Bowman reports from Washington, where legislators left town 10 days ago for a seven-week recess.
Video

Video Ebola Patients Find No Treatment at Sierra Leone Holding Center

At a holding facility in Makeni, central Sierra Leone, dozens of sick people sit on the floor in an empty university building. They wait in filthy conditions. It's a 16-hour drive by ambulance to Kailahun Ebola treatment center. Adam Bailes was there and reports on what he says are some of the worst situations he has seen since the beginning of this Ebola outbreak. And he says it appears case numbers may already be far worse than authorities acknowledge.
Video

Video Identifying Bodies Found in Texas Border Region

Thousands of immigrants have died after crossing the border from Mexico into remote areas of the southwestern United States in recent years. Local officials in south Texas alone have found hundreds of unidentified bodies and buried them in mass graves in local cemeteries. Now an anthropologist and her students at Baylor University have been exhuming bodies and looking for clues to identify them. VOA’s Greg Flakus has more from Waco, Texas.
Video

Video Ebola Robs Liberians of Chance to Say Good-Bye to Loved Ones

In Liberia, where Ebola has killed more than 1,500 people, authorities have worked hard to convince people to allow specialized burial teams to take away dead bodies. But these safety measures, while necessary, make it hard for people to say good bye to their loved ones. VOA's Anne Look reports on the tragedy from Liberia.
Video

Video Reconstruction? What Reconstruction? Life After War in Gaza

It’s been a month since Israel and the Palestinians agreed to a ceasefire to end 52 days of an air and tank war that left 60,000 homes in Gaza damaged or destroyed and 110,000 homeless. Sharon Behn reports that lack of reconstruction is leading to despair.
Video

Video US, Saudi Arabia and UAE Hit Islamic State's Oil Revenue

The United States, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have bombed oil facilities operated by Islamic State militants in Syria. It was a truly collaborative effort, with the two Arab countries dropping the majority of the bombs. The 12 refineries targeted were estimated to generate as much as $2 million per day for the terrorist group. VOA Pentagon correspondent Carla Babb has the story.
Video

Video Russia's Food Sanctions Raise Price Worries, Hopes for Domestic Production

Russia retaliated against Western sanctions imposed for its actions in Ukraine by halting food imports from the West. The temporary import ban on food from Australia, the European Union, Norway and North America has Russian consumers concerned that they could face a sharp increase in food prices. But in an ironic twist, the restrictions aimed at the Kremlin have made Russia's domestic food producers hopeful this can boost their business. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Moscow.
Video

Video Washington to Pyongyang: 'Shut This Evil System Down'

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry is calling on North Korea to shut down prison camps and other human rights abuses following a United Nations Commission of Inquiry into "widespread and systematic human rights violations." VOA State Department Correspondent Scott Stearns reports from the United Nations.
Colonel Steve ‘Spiros’ Pisanos left Greece and came to the U.S. to learn to fly. He flew fighters for the Allies in World War II, narrowly escaping death multiple times.Colonel Steve ‘Spiros’ Pisanos left Greece and came to the U.S. to learn to fly. He flew fighters for the Allies in World War II, narrowly escaping death multiple times.

AppleAndroid