News / Asia

    Hunger In Focus: Reducing Insects to Increase Crop Yield

    Two-Thirds of the world's one-billion hungry people live in Asia. Through this series of reports, VOA aims to draw attention to the problems of hunger in Asia as part of World Food Day - 16 October.

    Scientists check at cassava plantations for signs of pests and diseases at a field in northeastern Thailand.
    Scientists check at cassava plantations for signs of pests and diseases at a field in northeastern Thailand.

    Insects have long plagued farmers as they try to grow food for themselves and others.  History is filled with tales of crop failures because of pests.  Chemicals have been widely used for decades to combat the problem.  But the practice is not always friendly to the environment or healthy for those who eat treated produce.

    An approach called Integrated Pest Management is helping to address these issues and has successfully increased crop production in Asia and elsewhere.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines Integrated Pest Management, or IPM, as an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices.

    IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment.

    Brenda Vander Mey is a professor of Sociology at Clemson University who specializes in social aspects of farming.  "Integrated pest management programs thrive in much of Asia," she said.  "The integrated pest management has been extremely successful for decades now in Indonesia.  Crop rotation is one of the strategies for integrated pest management.  It is one of many.  But what you cannot do is just continuously work soil and work soil without putting something back, some organic matter."

    IPM is not a single pest control method but, rather, a series of pest management evaluations, decisions and controls.  IPM also varies from organic food growing, which applies many of the same concepts as IPM, but limits the use of pesticides to those that are produced from natural sources.

    James Frederick, a professor at the Pee Dee Research and Education Center in Florence, South Carolina, explains some of the basic steps used in IPM.  "They might be able to plant early.  If you know a disease comes in or an insect comes in late in the growing season, so you try to plant early as you can so most of the crop will be made by the time disease or insects come in.  You can do crop rotation.  It is a good example of a basic practice you can do to help with weed control."

    Not all insects, weeds, and other living organisms require control.  Many organisms are innocuous, and some are even beneficial. IPM programs work to monitor for pests and identify them accurately.

    Professor Frederick says farmers also need to know what is best to plant.  "Sometimes when you develop a variety resistant to a disease, you will lose a little bit of yield.  So normally you would not plant that variety that has that disease resistance unless you have the problem," he said.  "If you know you are going to have a problem, then you are going to plant that variety that is resistant to that disease.  Then of course the last option is some sort of chemical control.  But we try to tell our farmers to use management first and chemicals second," Professor Frederick said.

    Genetics is also helping to play a role in developing crops that are more resistant to disease and insects.  But Professor Brenda Vander Mey says modified crops are not universally welcomed.

    "There is a horrendous debate about the role that biotechnology or engineered foods and foodstuffs could play in decreasing hunger, food insecurity, etc.  The big issue has become should it have a role given concerns that people have over genetically engineered food and foodstuffs and their potential impact on environment and people.  So the debate just continues in that area, with some countries less comfortable than others with adopting the more genetically engineered germ plasmas, etc. for production."

    But she adds improvements in plants can be very beneficial.  "It could be the engineering is such that it is bringing say more beta carotene into the rice.  Or it could be engineered such that the plants are more pest resistant than previously," Vander Mey said.  "And on balance, I think that people are far more comfortable with genetically engineered foods that stick within their own category."

    Integrated Pest Management is a complex pest control process, and specific plans need to be developed to suit specific needs.  One IPM definition does not apply to all foods and all areas.

    Professor James Frederick says even small farmers can benefit simply by paying attention to their immediate environment.  "One basic and easy practice for integrated pest management is to go out there and scout and see what the problems are rather than say 'ok, it is about that time of the year when something should show up.  Therefore I am going to go out and spray whether it is out there or not,'" he said.

    In the United States, food grown using IPM practices is not usually identified in the marketplace similar to organic food.  Produce grown using IPM methods do not have a national certification as the U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed for organic foods.


    Jim Stevenson

    For over 35 years, Jim Stevenson has been sharing stories with the world on the radio and internet. From both the field and the studio, Jim enjoys telling about specific events and uncovering the interesting periphery every story possesses. His broadcast career has been balanced between music, news, and sports, always blending the serious with the lighter side.

    You May Like

    Clinton, Trump and the 'Woman’s Card'

    Ask supporters of Democratic front-runner in US presidential campaign, and they’ll tell you Republican presidential candidate is playing a dangerous hand

    Russian Censorship Group Seeks Chinese Help to Better Control Internet

    At recent Safe Internet League forum in Moscow, speakers from both nations underscored desire for authorities to further limit and control information online

    Video Makeshift Pakistani School Helps Slum Kids

    Free classes in Islamabad park serve a few of the country’s nearly 25 million out-of-school youths; NGO cites ‘education crisis’

    This forum has been closed.
    Comments
         
    There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    Turkish Kurd Islamist Rally Stokes Tensionsi
    X
    April 29, 2016 12:28 AM
    In a sign of the rising power of Islamists in Turkey, more than 100,000 people recently gathered in Diyarbakir, the main city in Turkey’s predominantly Kurdish southeast, to mark the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. The gathering highlighted tensions with the pro-secular Kurdish nationalist movement. Dorian Jones reports from Diyarbakir.
    Video

    Video Turkish Kurd Islamist Rally Stokes Tensions

    In a sign of the rising power of Islamists in Turkey, more than 100,000 people recently gathered in Diyarbakir, the main city in Turkey’s predominantly Kurdish southeast, to mark the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. The gathering highlighted tensions with the pro-secular Kurdish nationalist movement. Dorian Jones reports from Diyarbakir.
    Video

    Video Pakistani School Helps Slum Kids

    Master Mohammad Ayub runs a makeshift school in a public park in Islamabad. Thousands of poor children have benefited from his services over the years, but, as VOA's Ayesha Tanzeem reports, roughly 25 million school-age youths don't get an education in Pakistan.
    Video

    Video Florida’s Weeki Wachee ‘Mermaids’ Make a Splash

    Since 1947, ‘mermaids’ have fascinated tourists at central Florida’s Weeki Wachee Springs State Park with their fluid movements and synchronized ballet. Performing underwater has its challenges, including cold temperatures and a steady current, as VOA’s Lin Yang and Joseph Mok report.
    Video

    Video Somali, African Union Forces Face Resurgent Al-Shabab

    The Islamic State terror group claimed its first attack in Somalia earlier this week, though the claim has not been verified by forces on the ground. Meanwhile, al-Shabab militants have stepped up their attacks as Somalia prepares for elections later this year. Henry Ridgwell reports there are growing frustrations among Somalia’s Western backers over the country’s slow progress in forming its own armed forces to establish security after 25 years of chaos.
    Video

    Video Bangladesh Targeted Killings Spark Wave of Fear

    People in Bangladesh’s capital are expressing deep concern over the brutal attacks that have killed secular blogger, and most recently a gay rights activist and an employee of the U.S. embassy. Xulhaz Mannan, an embassy protocol officer and the editor of the country’s only gay and transgender magazine Roopban; and his friend Mehboob Rabbi Tanoy, a gay rights activist, were hacked to death by five attackers in Mannan’s Dhaka home earlier this month.
    Video

    Video Documentary Tells Tale of Chernobyl Returnees

    Ukraine this week is marking the 30th anniversary of the world's worst nuclear accident, at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Soviet officials at first said little about the accident, but later evacuated a 2,600-square-kilometer "exclusion zone." Some people, though, came back. American directors Holly Morris and Anne Bogart created a documentary about this faithful and brave community. VOA's Tetiana Kharchenko reports from New York on "The Babushkas of Chernobyl." Carol Pearson narrates.
    Video

    Video Nigerians Feel Bite of Buhari Economic Policy

    Despite the global drop in the price of oil, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari has refused to allow the country's currency to devalue, leading to a shortage of foreign exchange. Chris Stein reports from Lagos businessmen and consumers are feeling the impact as the country deals with a severe fuel shortage.
    Video

    Video  Return to the Wild

    There’s a growing trend in the United States to let old or underused golf courses revert back to nature. But as Erika Celeste reports from one parcel in Grafton, Ohio, converting 39 hectares of land back to green space is a lot more complicated than just not mowing the fairway.
    Video

    Video West Urges Unity in Libya as Migrant Numbers Soar

    The Italian government says a NATO-led mission aimed at stemming the flow of migrants from Libya to Europe could be up and running by July. There are concerns that the number of migrants could soar as the route through Greece and the Balkans remains blocked. Western powers say the political chaos in Libya is being exploited by people smugglers — and they are pressuring rival groups to come together under the new unity government. VOA's Henry Ridgwell reports.
    Video

    Video Russia’s TV Rain Swims Against Tide in Sea of Kremlin Propaganda

    Russia’s media freedoms have been gradually eroded under President Vladimir Putin as his government has increased state ownership, influence, and restrictions on critical reporting. Television, where most Russians get their news, has been the main target and is now almost completely state controlled. But in the Russian capital, TV Rain stands out as an island in a sea of Kremlin propaganda.

    Special Report

    Adrift The Invisible African Diaspora