News / Economy

Role of the Federal Reserve

A guard stands outside the Federal Reserve Building in Washington, January 14, 2010 (file photo)
A guard stands outside the Federal Reserve Building in Washington, January 14, 2010 (file photo)

The Federal Reserve in the United States acts as the country's central bank. It has a mandate to promote maximum employment, stable prices and moderate long-term interest rates.

The "Fed" has three main functions.  They are to provide and maintain an effective payments system, supervise and regulate banking operations, and conduct monetary policy.

A Board of Governors in Washington is appointed by the president and approved by the senate, to administer reserve banks and branches in 12 districts around the country.  The board represents the government.  The banks and branches represent the private sector.

The most important tool the Fed has to conduct monetary policy is the buying and selling of U.S. government securities, which is often referred to as open market operations.    A Federal Open Market Committee administers the sale and purchase of U.S. government securities on the open market to influence short-term interest rates and growth of money and credit.  

Other tools that the Fed has it its disposal to influence the economy include adjustments to the discount rate and the reserve requirement, and acting as a lender.  The discount rate is the interest rate the Federal Reserve Banks charge financial institutions for short-term loans of reserves.

The reserve requirement is the percentage of funds a bank must set aside and hold in reserve.  If the Fed raises the reserve requirement, banks have less money to lend, which restrains the growth of the money supply. On the other hand, if the Fed lowers the reserve requirement, banks have more money to lend and the money supply increases. The Fed rarely changes the reserve requirement.

Finally, as a lender, the Fed offers discount rate loans to help banks meet short-term needs, a buffer to maintain steady reserve demand and supply.

You May Like

China Investigates Former Powerful Security Chief

Former security chief and member of Politburo Standing Committee, Zhou Yongkang, under investigation for suspected 'serious disciplinary violation' More

India, US Look to Reset Ties During Kerry Visit

This week's talks will be first high level interaction between two countries since Prime Minister Narendra Modi took charge More

Video Young African Leadership Program Renamed to Honor Mandela

YALI program, launched by President Obama in 2010, aims to build skills in business, entrepreneurship, public management and civic leadership More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Vietnamese Staging Chinese Product Boycott After Oil Rig Spati
X
Reasey Poch
July 28, 2014 7:18 PM
China recently pulled an oil rig from an area of the disputed South China Sea that Vietnam also claims. Despite the action, the incident has had a lingering effect on consumers in Vietnam. VOA's Reasey Poch reports from Hanoi on an effort to boycott Chinese products.
Video

Video Vietnamese Staging Chinese Product Boycott After Oil Rig Spat

China recently pulled an oil rig from an area of the disputed South China Sea that Vietnam also claims. Despite the action, the incident has had a lingering effect on consumers in Vietnam. VOA's Reasey Poch reports from Hanoi on an effort to boycott Chinese products.
Video

Video ESA Spacecraft to Land on a Comet

After a long flight through deep space, a European Space Agency probe is finally approaching its target -- a comet millions of kilometers away from earth. Scientists say the mission may lead to some startling discoveries about the origins of the water on earth. VOA’s George Putic has more.
Video

Video Young Africans Arrive in US for Leadership Program

President Barack Obama's Young African Leadership Initiative has brought hundreds of young Africans to the United States for a six-week program aimed at building their knowledge and skills in fields such as public administration and business. Out of the 50,000 young Africans who applied for the program, just one percent was accepted. VOA's Laurel Bowman caught up with some of those who made the cut and has this report.
Video

Video In Honduras, Amnesty Rumors Fuel US Migration Surges

False rumors in Central America are fueling the current surge of undocumented young people being apprehended at the U.S. border. The inaccurate claims suggest the U.S. will give amnesty to young migrants from the region. As VOA's Brian Padden reports from Honduras, these rumors trace back to President Obama's 2012 executive order to halt deportations for some young undocumented immigrants already living in the United States.
Video

Video Students in Business for Themselves

They're only high school students, but they are making accessories for shoes, fabricating backpacks and doing product photography - all through their own businesses. It's the result of a partnership between a non-profit organization that teaches entrepreneurship and their schools. VOA's Mike O'Sullivan and Deyane Moses met the budding entrepreneurs near Los Angeles.
Video

Video Astronauts Train in Underwater Lab

In the world’s only underwater laboratory, four U.S. astronauts train for a planned visit to an asteroid. The lab - called Aquarius- is located five kilometers off Key Largo, in southern Florida. Living in close quarters and making excursions only into the surrounding ocean, they try to simulate the daily routine of a crew that will someday travel to collect samples of a rock orbiting far away from earth. VOA’s George Putic has more.

AppleAndroid

World Currencies

EUR
USD
0.7305
JPY
USD
101.53
GBP
USD
0.5830
CAD
USD
1.0656
INR
USD
60.075

Rates may not be current.