News / Asia

Transformative Year in Afghanistan Leaves Many Challenges for US in 2011

US soldiers inspect the site of suicide attack in Kandahar, Afghanistan, Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010.
US soldiers inspect the site of suicide attack in Kandahar, Afghanistan, Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010.

Multimedia

Al Pessin

2010 was a transformative year for the U.S. effort in Afghanistan, with 30,000 additional troops and thousands more civilians flowing into the country to implement President Barack Obama's revised strategy for winning the now nine-year-old war.  

It has been a difficult and deadly year in the Afghanistan war.  Violence and casualties are up.  And progress has been difficult to measure.

But U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates was optimistic during his most recent visit to Afghanistan in December. "The bottom line is that in the last 12 months we have come a long way, frankly progress that even just in the last few months has exceeded my expectations," he said.

But Gates also acknowledged that progress in some areas, where U.S., allied and Afghan efforts have been focused, does not mean there is progress toward stability, security and prosperity elsewhere in the country. "The lesson learned here is that you should not generalize about Afghanistan.  You should not even generalize from regional command to regional command or province to province, that you really have to take it a district at a time, and maybe even more local areas than that," he said.

Announcing the results of the year-end Afghanistan policy review on December 16th, President Obama said progress is being made and the strategy of using the military to pursue hard-core insurgents and train Afghan forces, and using international civilians to help improve governance and promote economic development, is working.

"This continues to be a very difficult endeavor.  But I can report that thanks to the extraordinary service of our troops and civilians on the ground, we are on track to achieve our goals," he said.

The president called the progress "fragile and reversible," and his review calls for more efforts to establish local security in key areas, and to press Pakistan to take more action against insurgent bases on its side of the border.

It was not a smooth road for President Obama to get to his year-end review. "Today I accepted General Stanley McChrystal's resignation as commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan," he said.

That was June 23, just a year after the president had appointed General McChrystal to command the U.S. and NATO military effort in Afghanistan, only six months after the president had finalized his strategy, and well before most of the additional troops had even arrived.  He fired McChrystal for critical comments about the president, his policy, and his aides made by the general and members of his staff in a Rolling Stone magazine article.  

Within a fast and wrenching 48 hours, the general who had been built up as the best man to win the war in Afghanistan was gone.  But the president did not have to look far to find a suitable successor. "I am also pleased to nominate General David Petraeus to take command in Afghanistan, which will allow us to maintain the momentum and leadership that we need to succeed," he said.

General Petraeus was McChrystal's boss, commander of all U.S. forces in the Middle East and Central Asia, and the famed former commander of allied troops in Iraq credited with developing the counter-insurgency strategy that turned that war around.

By December, General Petraeus was claiming significant progress. "We believe that we have arrested the momentum of the Taliban in many parts of Afghanistan, but not in all," he said.

The general said allied gains are having a psychological as well as tactical impact, but he also acknowledged the Taliban still has free rein in some areas and there is much more work to do.  Petraeus commands 98,000 U.S. troops and 48,000 from other coalition countries - about triple the number when President Obama took office two years ago.

The president confirmed in the year-end review that he will begin to draw down the U.S. force level in July.  

But he and other NATO leaders, and Afghan President Hamid Karzai, acknowledged at their summit in November that Afghanistan will not be able to take full responsibility for its own security until at least the end of 2014.  Even after that, officials expect the country will continue to need some security assistance, as well as more training for its military, police and bureaucrats, and more funding for economic development.

But even with all that effort made and planned by the United States, Afghanistan and their allies, President Obama acknowledged that to achieve real and lasting progress Pakistan must eliminate insurgent safe havens on its side of the border.  He said Pakistan has done a lot, but must do more.

Analysts agree. Retired U.S. Army Lieutenant General David Barno, who commanded U.S. troops in Afghanistan from 2003 to 2004, said, "We need to do everything we can to support the Pakistani government in stamping out these safe havens, and we have to be willing to put more pressure on them.  And if that includes public pressure, then we have to go there."

Analyst Michael O'Hanlon of the Brookings Institution acknowledges Pakistan's counter-terrorism efforts were hampered by the devastating floods in July, but he says now it is time to act. "I would have to say 2010 was a disappointing year in regard to that particular aspect of the problem, and I would hope 2011 would be substantially better," he said.

On the broader issues of Afghanistan, both experts say for all the attention the December strategy review received it is too soon to really know whether the strategy is working.  General Barno said, "I think he, in reality, is going to have to wait until sometime mid to late next summer to analyze what the true results are of the so-called 30,000-troop surge."

Michael O'Hanlon agrees, and adds military gains and progress at improving the local security forces may not be the most important developments in Afghanistan in 2010.  He says the NATO decision to continue its commitment at least through 2014 may be more important. "It signals to people in the region that the United States and NATO are not going to be in a hurry to leave next summer.  And that may encourage more people to cooperate with us instead of doubting our staying power and hedging their bets and maintaining ties to the insurgents, for example," he said.

The analysts say the coming year will be crucial in determining whether large numbers of ordinary Afghans decide to reject the insurgents, and that is by no means assured.  But with U.S. casualties reaching an all-time high of nearly 500 in Afghanistan during the past year, with 5,000 injured, experts say the new strategy will have to show significant results by mid-year to maintain the support of President Obama, the American people and an increasingly divided and budget-conscious Congress.

You May Like

Brutality Eroding IS Financial Support

Director of National Intelligence James Clapper says IS's penchant for publicizing beheadings, other brutal forms of punishment hurts group’s bottom line More

Studies: Climate Change a Factor in Disasters in Syria, California

The studies point to the possibility of clear and present dangers from a threat often considered to be far in the future More

Video Afghan Refugees Complain of Harassment in Pakistan

Afghan officials and human rights organizations assert that Pakistani authorities are using deadly attack at school in Peshawar as pretext to push out Afghan refugees More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Kerry Seeks Assurances of Russian Non-Interference in Ukrainei
X
March 03, 2015 3:11 AM
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry has told his Russian counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, that his country could face further consequences to what he called its “already strained economy” if Moscow does not fully comply with a cease-fire in Ukraine. The two met, on Monday, on the sidelines of a U.N. Human Rights Council meeting in Geneva, where Kerry outlined human rights violations in Russian-annexed Crimea and eastern Ukraine. VOA State Department correspondent Pam Dockins reports from Geneva.
Video

Video Kerry Seeks Assurances of Russian Non-Interference in Ukraine

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry has told his Russian counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, that his country could face further consequences to what he called its “already strained economy” if Moscow does not fully comply with a cease-fire in Ukraine. The two met, on Monday, on the sidelines of a U.N. Human Rights Council meeting in Geneva, where Kerry outlined human rights violations in Russian-annexed Crimea and eastern Ukraine. VOA State Department correspondent Pam Dockins reports from Geneva.
Video

Video Smartphones May Help in Diagnosing HIV

Diagnosing infections such as HIV requires expensive clinical tests, making the procedure too costly for many poor patients or those living in remote areas. But a new technology called lab-on-a-chip may make the tests more accessible to many. VOA’s George Putic reports.
Video

Video Afghan Refugees Complain of Harassment in Pakistan

Afghan officials have expressed concern over reports of a crackdown on Afghan refugees in Pakistan following the Peshawar school attack in December. Reports of mass arrests and police harassment coupled with fear of an uncertain future are making life difficult for a population that fled its homeland to escape war. VOA’s Ayesha Tanzeem reports from Islamabad.
Video

Video Ukrainian Volunteers Prepare to Defend Mariupol

Despite the ongoing ceasefire in Ukraine, soldiers in the city of Mariupol fear that pro-Russian separatists may be getting ready to attack. The separatists must take or encircle the city if they wish to gain land access to Crimea, which was annexed by Russia early last year. But Ukrainian forces, many of them volunteers, say they are determined to defend it. Patrick Wells reports from Mariupol.
Video

Video Moscow Restaurants Suffer in Bad Economy, Look for Opportunity

As low oil prices and Western sanctions force Russia's economy into recession, thousands of Moscow restaurants are expected to close their doors. Restaurant owners face rents tied to foreign currency, while rising food prices mean Russians are spending less when they dine out. One entrepreneur in Moscow has started a dinner kit delivery service for those who want to cook at home to save money but not skimp on quality. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports.
Video

Video US, Cuba Report Progress in Latest Talks to Restore Ties

The United States and Cuba say they have made progress in the second round of talks on restoring diplomatic relations more than 50 years after breaking off ties. Delegations from both sides met in Washington on Friday to work on opening embassies in Havana and Washington and iron out key obstacles to historic change. VOA’s Mary Alice Salinas reports from the State Department.
Video

Video Presidential Hopefuls Battle for Conservative Hearts and Minds

One after another, presumptive Republican presidential contenders auditioned for conservative support this week at the Conservative Political Action Conference held outside Washington. The rhetoric was tough as a large field of potential candidates tried to woo conservative support with red-meat attacks on President Barack Obama and Democrats in Congress. VOA Political Columnist Jim Malone takes a look.
Video

Video NYC's Restaurant Week: An Economic Boom in Fine Dining

New Yorkers take pride in setting world trends — in fashion, the arts and fine dining. The city’s famous biannual Restaurant Week plays a significant role in a booming tourism industry that sustains 359,000 jobs and generates $61 billion in yearly revenue. VOA's Ramon Taylor reports.
Video

Video Brookhaven at Cutting Edge of US Energy Research

Issues like the Keystone XL pipeline, fracking and instability in the Middle East are driving debate in the U.S. about making America energy independent. Recently, the American Energy Innovation Council urged Congress and the White House to make expanded energy research a priority. One beneficiary of increased energy spending would be the Brookhaven National Lab, where clean, renewable, efficient energy is the goal. VOA's Bernard Shusman reports.
Video

Video Southern US Cities Preserve Civil Rights Heritage to Boost Tourism

There has been a surge of interest in the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s, thanks in part to the Hollywood motion picture "Selma." Five decades later, communities in the South are embracing the dark chapters of their past with hopes of luring tourism dollars. VOA's Chris Simkins reports.
Video

Video Deep Under Antarctic Ice Sheet, Life!

With the end of summer in the Southern hemisphere, the Antarctic research season is over. Scientists from Northern Illinois University are back in their laboratory after a 3-month expedition on the Ross Ice Shelf, the world’s largest floating ice sheet. As VOA’s Rosanne Skirble reports, they hope to find clues to explain the dynamics of the rapidly melting ice and its impact on sea level rise.
Video

Video Lao Dam Project Runs Into Opposition

A Lao dam project on a section of the Mekong River is drawing opposition from local fishermen, international environmental groups and neighboring countries. VOA's Say Mony visited the region to investigate the concerns. Colin Lovett narrates.

All About America

Circumventing Censorship

An Internet Primer for Healthy Web Habits

As surveillance and censoring technologies advance, so, too, do new tools for your computer or mobile device that help protect your privacy and break through Internet censorship.
More