News / Africa

US-Gadhafi Relationship Never Fully Developed Before Uprising

Before the uprising against the rule of Moammar Gadhafi began, the long icy relationship between Libya and the U.S. had been slowly thawing. The rapprochement began in 2003 and had started to show some signs of promise. But  the warming trend had stalled by the time the uprising in Libya began in February because of Libyan demands for U.S. arms sales and hardcore anti-U.S. sentiment in some quarters of Mr. Gadhafi's government.

On a historic trip to Libya in September of 2008, then-U.S. Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice broke more than 20 years of diplomatic ice by declaring that her visit was proof that the U.S. has no permanent enemies.  In that year, relations were restored, a new ambassador to Libya was named - the first in more than 35 years - and the onetime adversaries talked of new opportunities for cooperation in nuclear nonproliferation, trade and investment, counterterrorism, and economic development.

But, says Gene Cretz, the U.S. ambassador to Libya, the renewed U.S.-Libyan relationship kept getting sidetracked and never progressed very far.

“We embarked, really, on a process of normalization. But during those two years there were several crises, in fact, that plagued the relationship.  And each time that we were able to get the relationship back onto a stable path, one of these events would happen, and the whole thing would be blown off kilter and we’d have to start again,” Cretz said.

Since the 1980s Libya and the United States had clashed militarily and diplomatically. U.S. President Ronald Reagan famously declared Mr. Gadhafi the “mad dog of the Middle East” for Libya’s support for terrorism.  The low point came when 270 people were killed in the Libyan-sponsored bombing of PanAm Flight 103 over Scotland in 1988.  U.N. sanctions were imposed, leaving Libya deeply isolated.

But in 2003, Libya announced it was renouncing its weapons of mass destruction and said it was giving up using terrorism.  It also agreed to pay compensation to the families of the victims killed in the bombing of PanAm Flight 103.  

Current and former officials say the U.S. did not rush into a wholesale embrace of Libya and the Gadhafi regime.  However, they say Libya, which was home to an al-Qaida affiliate, the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, did prove itself extremely helpful in counterterrorism because of Mr. Gadhafi's fierce opposition to Islamist extremists.  

Mark Kimmitt, a retired U.S. general who served as assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs, says the U.S. was looking at some tentative first steps, such as military-to-military exchanges.  

“Well, I think everybody wanted to see where the relationship would go.   Here was a country that at times had been considered part of the axis of terror. They had renounced weapons of mass destruction.  They had become helpful in the war on terrorism.  So what better way to completely close the circle and bring them into a more modern relationship between our countries than a security relationship, as well as other diplomatic relationships,” Kimmitt said.

Documents found in the aftermath of the ant-Gadhafi forces takeover of Tripoli, and released by Human Rights Watch, reveal U.S. and British plans to transfer some terrorism suspects to Libyan government custody where, says the rights group, they were sure to be tortured.  Officials would not comment on the reports.

In any case, the Tripoli-Washington relationship was not moving fast enough to suit the Libyan government. Ambassador Cretz says the Libyans felt their turnabout earned them unfettered access to U.S. military weapons and equipment, but Washington was not about to give it to them, even if it was non-lethal aid or sales.

“We had not promised anything. I mean, they had provided us a list, literally almost something you would write on the back of a napkin in a restaurant, of everything from M-16s (semiautomatic rifles) to F-16s (fighter planes) - a huge list of things.  And we said, this is not the way we do business,” Cretz said.

A $77 million deal to furnish Libya with refurbished armored personnel carriers was in the works but was never finalized, Ambassador Cretz says.  Likewise, Libya’s procurement of C-130 transport planes purchased in the 1970s but never delivered due to the freeze in relations was under discussion with the manufacturer but the deal was never finalized.

Ambassador Cretz says several events cause the relationship to unravel. Chief among them, he says, was the hero’s welcome Libya accorded the only person convicted in the PanAm bombings after his release from Scottish custody in 2009.  He says the Libyans were also upset that Mr. Gadhafi was not invited to the White House for a nuclear nonproliferation summit last year.

It was at that time, he says, that warning bells of divisions in the Gadhafi government over the rapprochement began ringing.

“There was always a group in Libya that did not want a strong relationship with the United States. And we were always in the position of having to battle from day to day and see who was on the particular side of the relationship and who was not. There appeared to be troublesome signs in the summer of 2010, actually, when normal things like permits for cars or household effects (customs) clearance for embassy personnel were being slowed up at an extraordinary rate, which kind of gave us some pause,” Cretz said.

Washington withdrew Ambassador Cretz in January. It is not clear how much the revelation of his candid assessments of Mr. Gadhafi in diplomatic cables released by the antisecrecy group, WikiLeaks, were a factor, but they had clearly displeased the Libyan government.

But with Mr. Gadhafi ousted and a new transitional ruling authority in place, Ambassador Cretz, who has been working in Washington, plans to return to Tripoli.  Asked when, he only smiles and replies, “soon.”

You May Like

Video Snowstorm Sweeps Northeastern US

'This is nothing like we feared it would be,' New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio says; he had warned storm could be one of worst in city history More

Millions of Displaced Nigerians Struggle With Daily Existence

Government acknowledges over a million people displaced in 2014 due to fight against Boko Haram insurgency More

Facebook: Internal Error to Blame for Outages

Temporary outage appeared to spill over and temporarily slow or block traffic to other major Internet sites More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Obama Urges Closer Economic Ties During Historic India Visiti
X
Aru Pande
January 26, 2015 9:33 PM
U.S. President Barack Obama says the United States and India must do better to capitalize on untapped potential in their economic relationship - by removing some of the roadblocks to greater trade and investment. As VOA correspondent Aru Pande reports from New Delhi, Obama spoke after participating in India’s Republic Day celebration.
Video

Video Obama Urges Closer Economic Ties During Historic India Visit

U.S. President Barack Obama says the United States and India must do better to capitalize on untapped potential in their economic relationship - by removing some of the roadblocks to greater trade and investment. As VOA correspondent Aru Pande reports from New Delhi, Obama spoke after participating in India’s Republic Day celebration.
Video

Video US, EU Threaten New Russia Sanctions Over Ukraine

U.S. President Barack Obama has blamed Russia for an attack by Ukrainian separatists that left dozens dead in the port of Mariupol and cast further doubt on the viability of last year’s cease-fire with the Kyiv government. VOA’s Michael Bowman reports from Washington.
Video

Video White House Grapples With Yemen Counterterrorism Strategy

Reports say the U.S. has carried out a drone strike on suspected militants in Yemen, the first after President Barack Obama offered reassurances the U.S. is continuing its counterterrorism operations in the country. The future of those operations has been in question following the collapse last week of Yemen’s government. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.
Video

Video Kerry Warns Against Violence in Nigeria Election

US Secretary of State John Kerry visited Nigeria Sunday in a show of the level of concern within the U.S. and the international community over next month’s presidential election. Chris Stein reports.
Video

Video Zoo Animals Show Their Artistic Sides

The pursuit of happiness is so important, America's founding fathers put it in the Declaration of Independence. Any zookeeper will tell you animals need enrichment, just like humans do. So painting, and even music, are part of the Smithsonian National Zoo's program to keep the animals happy. VOA’s June Soh met some animal artists at the zoo in Washington. Faith Lapidus narrates.
Video

Video Worldwide Photo Workshops Empower Youth

Last September, 20 young adults from South Sudan took part in a National Geographic Photo Camp. They are among hundreds of students from around the world who have learned how to use a camera to tell the stories of the people in their communities through the powerful medium of photography. Three camp participants talked about their experiences recently on a visit to Washington. VOA’s Julie Taboh reports.
Video

Video Saudi, Yemen Developments Are Sudden Complications for Obama

The death of Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah and the collapse of Yemen’s government have cast further uncertainty on U.S. efforts to fight militants in the Middle East and also contain Iran’s influence in the region. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports on the new complications facing the Obama administration and its Middle East policy.
Video

Video Progress, Some Areas of Disagreement in Cuba Talks

U.S. and Cuban officials are reporting progress from initial talks in Havana on re-establishing diplomatic ties. U.S. Assistant Secretary of State (for Western Hemisphere Affairs) Roberta Jacobson said while there was agreement on a broad range of issues, there also are some “profound disagreements” between Washington and Havana. VOA State Department correspondent Pam Dockins has the story.
Video

Video US, Japan Offer Lessons as Eurozone Launches Huge Stimulus

The Euro currency has fallen sharply after the European Central Bank announced a bigger-than-expected $67 billion-a-month quantitative easing program Thursday - commonly seen as a form of printing new money. Henry Ridgwell reports for VOA from London on whether the move might rescue the eurozone economy -- and what lessons have been learned from similar programs around the world.
Video

Video Nigerian Elections Pose Concern of Potential Conflict in 'Middle Belt'

Nigeria’s north-central state of Kaduna has long been the site of fighting between Muslims and Christians as well as between people of different ethnic groups. As the February elections approach, community and religious leaders are making plans they hope will keep the streets calm after results are announced. Chris Stein reports from the state capital, Kaduna.
Video

Video As Viewership Drops, Obama Puts His Message on YouTube

Ratings reports show President Obama’s State of the Union address this week drew the lowest number of viewers for this annual speech in 15 years. White House officials anticipated this, and the president has decided to take a non-traditional approach to getting his message out. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.
Video

Video S. Korean Businesses Want to End Trade Restrictions With North

Business leaders in South Korea are calling for President Park Geun-hye to ease trade restrictions with North Korea that were put in place in 2010 after the sinking of a South Korean warship.Pro-business groups argue that expanding trade and investment is not only good for business, it is also good for long-term regional peace and security. VOA’s Brian Padden reports.

Circumventing Censorship

An Internet Primer for Healthy Web Habits

As surveillance and censoring technologies advance, so, too, do new tools for your computer or mobile device that help protect your privacy and break through Internet censorship.
More

All About America

AppleAndroid