Claudio Fonteles filed the request Tuesday concerning tax evasion, electoral crimes and possible crimes against the national financial system.
The allegations surfaced last July when a Brazilian magazine, IstoE, reported that Mr. Meirelles failed to pay Brazilian taxes while living in the United States in 2001.
Mr. Meirelles, who took office in 2003, has denied the allegations.
The magazine also reported that Mr. Meirelles and Central Bank Monetary Policy Director Luiz Candiota were under investigation by Brazilian prosecutors for tax irregularities. Mr. Candiota denied the charges but quit his post.
Some information for this report provided by AP and Reuters.