A man holds a poster showing images of Saudi Crown Prince Muhammed bin Salman and of journalist writer Jamal Khashoggi, describing the prince as "assassin" and Khashoggi as "martyr" during funeral prayers in absentia for Khashoggi who was killed last
A man holds a poster showing images of Saudi Crown Prince Muhammed bin Salman and of journalist writer Jamal Khashoggi, describing the prince as "assassin" and Khashoggi as "martyr" during funeral prayers in absentia for Khashoggi who was killed last

A multipronged crackdown on the press continued throughout 2018, the Committee to Protect Journalists concludes in a report published Thursday.

Imprisonment, intimidation and allegations that journalists produce “fake news” surged in 2016, when U.S. President Donald Trump won the election, CPJ found.

Trump has been a vocal critic of the press, often chastising journalists as “very dishonest people.”

The number of journalists in jail dipped 8 percent, from 272 in 2017 to 251 this year. But that doesn’t mean the situation has improved, Angela Quintal, CPJ’s Africa program coordinator, told VOA.
 

FILE - Mimi Mefo in studio presenting news.

The numbers fluctuate and may not reflect every imprisoned journalist. They also remain markedly higher than just a half decade ago.

More importantly, targeting a single journalist can have far-reaching repercussions.

“The effects are not only, obviously, [on] the journalists themselves and their families and their colleagues, but we really are talking about the effect on citizens as a whole,” Quintal said.

CPJ’s report highlighted several bright spots.

In Ethiopia, which has experienced dramatic reforms under new leader Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, no journalists are currently known to be imprisoned, for the first time in 14 years.

FILE - Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed speaks
FILE - Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed speaks during a media conference at the Elysee Palace in Paris, France, Oct. 29, 2018.

Improvements in some countries, however, don’t necessarily rub off on others.

“Unfortunately, neighboring Eritrea remains the highest jailer of journalists in sub-Saharan Africa, with 16 journalists behind bars as we speak,” Quintal said.

Worldwide, report author Elana Beiser, CPJ’s editorial director, singled out China, Egypt and Saudi Arabia as troublespots, highlighting how wide-ranging efforts to silence journalists have become.

In sub-Saharan Africa, Quintal’s region of focus, Cameroon, where seven journalists are in jail, is a new country of concern. At least four of those journalists faced false news charges in what Quintal called “a huge, huge setback.”


Overall, more than two dozen journalists have been charged with publishing false news, mainly in Africa.

Accusations and imprisonments can propel self-censorship, with profound effects on citizens’ right to information.

“When you see your colleagues being jailed, when you see them accused of so-called fake news, when they’re being arrested on false news charges,” Quintal said, “it does, obviously, have a chilling effect.”

Quintal herself was targeted, along with colleague Muthoki Mumo, in Tanzania last month.

Tanzanian authorities on Thursday released Muthoki Mumo, left, and Angela Quintal, both of the Committee to Protect Journalists, after detaining them for a day. They're pictured in a screen grab from CPJ's website.
Media Rights Group Indignant Over Detention of its Employees in Tanzania

A media rights group expressed indignation over statements made by officials in Tanzania and South Africa justifying the detention of two of its employees. 

New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) said officials from both countries falsely claimed the two employees -- CPJ's Africa program coordinator Angela Quintal and sub-Saharan Africa representative Muthoki Mumo -- were in Tanzania without proper visas when they were detained and interrogated.

In a statement Monday, CJP said both women were traveling on valid visas, as part of a fact-finding trip to better understand local

Despite having an invitation letter from the Media Council of Tanzania, the two, both former journalists, were detained and interrogated.

Quintal, from South Africa, and Mumo, from Kenya, were kept in custody for five hours.

“We were lucky because we were able to leave Tanzania,” Quintal said, contrasting her experience to journalists in the country who have gone missing or continue to face intimidation.

“The abusive nature of what happened to us showed the world the true nature of what is going on in Tanzania at the moment,” she added.

Quintal and Mumo’s case was unusual. Governments tend to target their own citizens, and journalists imprisoned by their governments make up 98 percent of cases, CPJ concluded. They also found that 13 percent of journalists in jail are women, an 8 percent increase from 2017.

Despite worrying signs, there is room for optimism, Quintal said.

When new leaders come to power, she said, human rights and press freedoms can improve very quickly.

Quintal pointed to The Gambia as one example, where the new president, Adama Barrow, has created space for journalists to work without fear of reprisal.

Tuesday, Time magazine selected journalists who have been targeted for doing their work, the “guardians” of truth, as their Person of the Year.

Candles, lit by activists, protesting the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, are placed outside Saudi Arabia's consulate, in Istanbul, during a candlelight vigil, Oct. 25, 2018.
Slain Saudi Writer, Other Journalists Named Time's 'Person of the Year'

Slain journalist Jamal Khashoggi is among a group of journalists who were named Time Magazine's "Person of the Year" Tuesday.

The publication recognizes a person or a group of people who most influenced the news and world affairs over the past year "for better or for worse."

Editor-in-Chief Edward Felsenthal announced on NBC's "Today" show the 2018 person of the year are the "guardians and the war on truth."

In addition to Khashoggi, the other "guardians" are the staff of the Capital Gazette in Annapolis, Maryland, where five members were killed in a mass shooting at the newspaper's offices in