The Obama administration says detainees at the U.S. air base in Bagram, Afghanistan cannot use U.S. courts to challenge their detention.
The ruling by the U.S. Justice Department upholds the former Bush administration's policy on the issue.
Attorneys representing the detainees expressed disappointment with the decision.
Last year the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that prisoners at the U.S. Naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, have the right to file such court petitions because the United States has jurisdiction over that facility.
But the Justice Department Friday said the 600 prisoners at the U.S. air base in Afghanistan are different because they are being held in a war zone as part of a continuing military action.
Although President Obama has ordered the closure of the Guantanamo Bay detention center, his administration has continued at least one other Bush administration policy.
Last week, the Obama legal team backed the state secrets privilege, urging the dismissal of a lawsuit involving allegations that the CIA flew suspects overseas to be tortured.
Some information for this report was provided by AP and Bloomberg.