News / Africa

Poor Countries Denied Chance to Succeed?

Jobless Africa
Jobless Africa

Multimedia

Audio
Joe DeCapua
A Harvard professor said developing countries were forced down an economic path in the 20th Century that lacked innovation, entrepreneurship and technology. As a result, he said, they had stunted development, while many other nations prospered.
 
Professor Calestous Juma tells the story of dueling economic theories. One based on new ideas and risk taking, and the other on pessimism and ignorance. It’s a story of the haves and have nots. Juma is professor of the Practice of International Development and Faculty Chair of the Innovation for Economic Development Executive Program.
“In 1911, an Austrian economist by the name of Joseph Schumpeter published a book called The Theory of Economic Development, which proposed that economies grow over time through innovation. Through new combinations that involved the application of new technologies. And this book became really a standard on how to think about economic transformation through the use of technology and entrepreneurship,” he said.
 
Juma said Schumpeter took a different view on what was needed for robust economic growth.
 
“It was new because up to that point people believed that economies grew because of extraction of natural resources – not because of application of technologies. It was also new because he proposed that the use of new technologies resulted in revolutionary changes in economic systems.”
 
Schumpeter, he said, based his theory on what he saw happening in developed nations.
 
“He made the observation by looking at the impact of railroads in Europe and America. So, rich nations were already doing it, but it had not been explained in a clear and explicit way, which had to do with this idea of introducing new combinations in the economy, which [are] technological combinations -- but also the recognition that these new technological transformations were being driven by entrepreneurs. So entrepreneurship became a very central part of his thinking.”
 
Professor Juma said new industries develop through – what’s called – creative destruction.
 
“His idea was that when you introduce, say, railroads in a community, which didn’t have railroads before, so they’re using stage coaches, railroads will destroy stage coaches. That industry will disappear, but it will create a new industry, which is a faster industry with a greater opportunity for economic expansion. If you think of it in modern times, if we introduce downloading of music, it destroys CDs. So, it’s destructive to the CDs, but it creates new industries, which is downloading of music,” he said.
 
Such developments are common today. But many economists in the 20th Century thought the developing world was not ready for Schumpeter’s ideas.
 
Juma said, “So the critics said emerging economies don’t have new technologies. Secondly, he said, the agent of change is [the] entrepreneur. Then they argued that the entrepreneur is not the biggest player in poor economies you need big government. You need bureaucracies. And thirdly, he put a lot of emphasis on industrial production. His critics said what the poor want is not production. They want consumption. So we give them some products that have been developed elsewhere. But it doesn’t make sense to enable them to produce themselves.”
 
Juma does not think racism was behind their beliefs, but rather pessimism about developing countries.
 
“Because they looked at them and said – they’re so poor, we cannot possibly give them the latest technologies because they are not even able to absorb them. So let’s find them older technologies. So, I don’t think it was racism. I think it was a mindset that was more colored by pessimism and less by an appreciation that even poor countries are able to solve their own problems when given a chance,” he said.
 
Instead, they were given – so-called -- appropriate technologies. Juma said instead of a modern water supply with sewers, they were told to dig wells. Instead of building modern electric grids, they were given fuel efficient stoves.
 
During the HIV/AIDS epidemic, many doubted African nations had the capability to distribute and administer antiretroviral drugs. And as a result, they said the drugs could not be effective. African nations proved them wrong.
 
“Again that was another example of pessimism. Of saying there’s really very little you can do for these countries because they don’t have the infrastructure. The same infrastructure they had been denied from building in the first place,” said Juma.
 
In the 20th Century, many had thought Ghana had the potential to become an economic powerhouse – that it would become what South Korea is today.
 
Juma said, “It’s very interesting you bring up the case of Ghana because Ghana at independence got a foreign economic advisor – a Nobel Laureate in economics – Arthur Lewis. He was one of the critics of Schumpeter, who did not believe that a country like Ghana was capable of transforming itself technologically, whereas South Korea was able to do that. At that time, there wasn’t a big difference between South Korea and Ghana.”
 
Juma recommends giving priority to innovation, technical and engineering fields, transformative infrastructure and entrepreneurship.
 
The Harvard professor is working on a new book containing his ideas. It has the tentative title of How Economies Succeed: Innovation and the Wealth of Nations. It’s due out in 2015.

You May Like

Photogallery Oxfam: Ebola Could Be 'Disaster of Our Generation'

Meanwhile, Fidel Castro, the former leader of Cuba, says the Caribbean island nation will 'gladly cooperate' with the US in the fight against Ebola in West Africa More

Multimedia Kobani Fighting Sends 400,000 Refugees to Turkey

Refugees receive help from Turkish authorities and individuals, but say much more is needed More

India’s Ruling Nationalist Party Makes Gains in Regional Elections

Bharatiya Janata Party’s huge margin over its rivals puts it on course to form governments in the northern Haryana and western Maharashtra states More

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Exclusive: American Joins Kurds' Anti-IS Fighti
X
Zana Omer
October 18, 2014 6:37 PM
The United States and other Western nations have expressed alarm about their citizens joining Islamic State forces in Syria and Iraq. In a rare counterpoint to the phenomenon, an American has taken up arms with the militants' Syrian Kurdish opponents. Elizabeth Arrott has more in this exclusive profile by VOA Kurdish reporter Zana Omer in Ras al Ayn, Syria.
Video

Video Exclusive: American Joins Kurds' Anti-IS Fight

The United States and other Western nations have expressed alarm about their citizens joining Islamic State forces in Syria and Iraq. In a rare counterpoint to the phenomenon, an American has taken up arms with the militants' Syrian Kurdish opponents. Elizabeth Arrott has more in this exclusive profile by VOA Kurdish reporter Zana Omer in Ras al Ayn, Syria.
Video

Video South Korea Confronts Violence Within Military Ranks

Every able-bodied South Korean male between 18 and 35 must serve for 21 to 36 months in the country’s armed forces, depending upon the specific branch. For many, service is a rite of passage to manhood. But there are growing concerns that bullying and violence come along with the tradition. Reporter Jason Strother has more from Seoul.
Video

Video Comanche People Maintain Pride in Their Heritage

The Comanche (Indian nation) once were called the “Lords of the Plains,” with an empire that included half the land area of current day Texas, large parts of Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas and Colorado.The fierceness and battle prowess of these warriors on horseback delayed the settlement of most of West Texas for four decades. VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from Lawton, Oklahoma, that while their warrior days are over, the 15,000 members of the Comanche Nation remain a proud people.
Video

Video Turkey Campus Attacks Raise Islamic Radicalization Fears

Concerns are growing in Turkey of Islamic radicalization at some universities, after clashes between supporters of the jihadist group Islamic State (IS) or ISIS, and those opposed to the extremists. Pro-jihadist literature is on sale openly on the streets of Istanbul. Critics accuse the government of turning a blind eye to radicalism at home, while Kurds accuse the president of supporting IS - a charge strongly denied. Henry Ridgwell reports from London.
Video

Video Syrian Defector Leaks Shocking Photos of Torture Victims

Shocking photographs purporting to show Syrian torture victims are on display at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The museum says the graphic images are among thousands of photographs recently smuggled out of Syria by a military policeman-turned-defector. As VOA reporter Julie Taboh reports, the museum says the photos provide further evidence of atrocities committed by the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad against its own people.
Video

Video Drought-Stricken California Considers Upgrading Water System

A three-year drought in California is causing a water shortage that is being felt on farms and cities throughout the state. As VOA's Mike O’Sullivan reports, water experts, consumers and farmers say California needs to make changes to cope with an uncertain future.
Video

Video TechShop Puts High-tech Dreams Within Reach

Square, a business app and card reader, makes it possible to do credit card transactions through cell phones. But what made Square possible? VOA’s Adrianna Zhang and Enming Liu have the answer.
Video

Video Church for Atheists Goes Global

Atheists, by definition, do not believe in God. So they should have no need of a church. But two years ago, a pair of British stand-up comedians decided to create one. Sanderson Jones and Pippa Evans told the BBC they envisioned “something like church but without God". Their “Sunday Assembly” movement has grown from a single congregation in London to dozens of churches around the world. Reporter Mike Osborne visited with the members of a Sunday Assembly that now meets regularly in Nashville.
Video

Video Robot Locates Unexploded Underwater Mines

Many educators believe that hands-on experience is the best way to learn. Proving that the method works is a project developed by a group of students at the Stevens Institute of Technology, in Hoboken, New Jersey. They rose up to a challenge posted by the U.S. Department of Defense and successfully designed and built an underwater robot for locating submerged unexploded ordnance. VOA’s George Putic reports.
Video

Video Liberia's JFK Hospital Reopens After Temporary Ebola Exposure

JFK Hospital is Liberia’s largest and one of its oldest medical facilities. The hospital had to close temporarily following the deaths of two leading doctors from Ebola. It is now getting back on its feet, with the maternity ward being the first section to reopen. Benno Muchler has more for VOA News from Monrovia.
Video

Video Hong Kong Protests Expose Generation Gap

Most of the tens of thousands of protesters in Hong Kong are students seeking democracy. Idealistic youths say while the older generation worries about the present, they are fighting for the territory's future. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Hong Kong.
Video

Video Liberians Living in US Struggle From Afar as Ebola Ravages Homeland

More than 8,000 Liberians live in New York City, more than in any other city outside of Liberia itself. As VOA’s Bernard Shusman reports, with the Ebola virus ravaging their homeland, there is no peace of mind for these New Yorkers.
Video

Video Kurds See War-Ravaged Kobani As Political, Emotional Heartland

Intense fighting is continuing between Islamic State militants -- also known as ISIS or ISIL -- and Kurdish forces around the Syrian town of Kobani, on the Turkish border. The U.S. said it carried out at least nine airstrikes against Islamic State positions Friday. Meanwhile the U.N. has warned that hundreds of civilians would be massacred if the town falls to the militants. Henry Ridgwell looks at the strategic significance of the city.

All About America

AppleAndroid