News / Africa

WHO: Better HIV Antiretroviral Strategies Needed

Gilead Science's Truvada combination antiretroviral pill that's taken once daily.Gilead Science's Truvada combination antiretroviral pill that's taken once daily.
x
Gilead Science's Truvada combination antiretroviral pill that's taken once daily.
Gilead Science's Truvada combination antiretroviral pill that's taken once daily.

Multimedia

Audio
Joe DeCapua
The World Health Organization says comprehensive HIV treatment strategies are needed in developing countries to overcome stigma and discrimination. It says there are a number of vulnerable groups unable to get full access to antiretroviral drugs.

Recent studies have shown that antiretroviral drugs not only extend the lives of people infected with HIV, but can also prevent infection in the first place. It’s a strategy known as “treatment as prevention.” It now means countries have the potential to greatly slow the spread of HIV by using the drugs as a prophylaxis. However, often those in need of HIV treatment and prevention are unable to receive them because of their social status.

“We’ve seen in many countries that there remains stigma against certain population groups. And in some countries these behaviors of these groups are criminalized. Being a sexworker in many African countries is criminal behavior. Being an MSN in some countries is criminalized and obviously injection drug use is,” said Dr. Gottfried Hirnschall, director of the WHO’s HIV/AIDS Department.

MSM is an acronym for men who have sex with men, one of the WHO’s and UNAIDS’ official groups of vulnerable people.



“We see barriers for these individuals to access services. And we obviously see that as a consequence in many places these groups have higher infection rates. They have higher mortality, etcetera,” he said.

Another part of a comprehensive strategy includes the question of when to start treatment. In the early days of antiretrovirals, the drugs were usually given to people when their immune systems had collapsed and were being attacked by opportunistic infections. The state of health is measured by the CD4 count. That is the number of particular immune cells a person has.

Hirnschall says, in recent years, the recommendation has been to start people on treatment much earlier.

“If you start as soon as possible – and that’s what’s happening now in the U.S. with the policy change that just took place – you may have a benefit to the patient. WHO now recommends initiation of treatment below a CD4 cell count of 350, which means that the immune system has already some signs of weakening, but that the patient is still not very sick yet,” he said.

By providing earlier treatment, many opportunistic infections could be avoided.

Two recent studies have proven the treatment as prevention strategy. One looked at discordant couples, where one person is HIV positive and the other is not. The drugs were 96 percent effective in preventing the HIV negative person from being infected.

Another study indicated the effectiveness of PrEP or preexposure prophylaxis.

“Even if you give drugs prior to exposure – in other words to HIV negative persons – referred to as preexposure prophylaxis – you may also protect this person from becoming infected. So the whole field of the use of antiretrovirals has become more and more exciting, but at the same time more complex,” said Hirnschall.”

The WHO official says it would cost more in the short-term to get more people on antiretrovirals sooner, probably billions more. However, he says in the long-term, the cost will drop and lives will be saved.

“You will have quite impressive reductions of both mortality and new infections. So we estimate over a period until 2020 more than 12 million new infections could be averted and 7.4 million deaths could be also averted. So in other words, yes, you need to invest. You need to front-load the resources, but you’re buying something for it,” he said.

Dr. Hirnschall says the World Health Organization is developing what are called consolidated guidelines. The aim is to help developing countries form care and treatment strategies for vulnerable groups.

You May Like

China May Be Biggest Winner From Ukraine Crisis

Missile sales, oil and gas shipments are among many areas that may drive Beijing and Moscow closer together in coming years More

Obama Faces Chaotic World, Limits of Power

Current foreign policy issues bring into focus challenges for US policymakers who are mindful of Americans' waning appetite for overseas military engagements More

SADC Meeting Lesotho Officials to Resolve Stalemate

Official says regional bloc has been engaged with leaders in Lesotho to resolve political disagreement that led to coup attempt More

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
West Africa Ebola Vaccine Trials Possible by Early 2015i
X
Carol Pearson
August 30, 2014 7:14 PM
A U.S. health agency is speeding up clinical trials of a possible vaccine against the deadly Ebola virus that so far has killed more than 1,500 people in West Africa. If successful, the next step would be a larger trial in countries where the outbreak is occurring. VOA's Carol Pearson has more.
Video

Video West Africa Ebola Vaccine Trials Possible by Early 2015

A U.S. health agency is speeding up clinical trials of a possible vaccine against the deadly Ebola virus that so far has killed more than 1,500 people in West Africa. If successful, the next step would be a larger trial in countries where the outbreak is occurring. VOA's Carol Pearson has more.
Video

Video Survivors Commemorate 70th Anniversary of Nazi Liquidation of Jewish Ghetto

When the German Nazi army occupied the Polish city of Lodz in 1939, it marked the beginning of a long nightmare for the Jewish community that once made up one third of the population. Roughly 200,000 people were forced into the Lodz Ghetto. Less than 7,000 survived. As VOA’s Kane Farabaugh reports, some survivors gathered at the Union League Club in Chicago on the 70th anniversary of the liquidation of the Lodz Ghetto to remember those who suffered at the hands of the Nazi regime.
Video

Video Cost to Raise Child in US Continues to Rise

The cost of raising a child in the United States continues to rise. In its latest annual report, the U.S. Department of Agriculture says middle income families with a child born in 2013 can expect to spend more than $240,000 before that child turns 18. And sending that child to college more than doubles that amount. VOA’s Deborah Block visited with a couple with one child in Alexandria, Virginia, to learn if the report reflects their lifestyle.
Video

Video Chaotic Afghan Vote Recount Threatens Nation’s Future

Afghanistan’s troubled presidential election continues to be rocked by turmoil as an audit of the ballots drags on. The U.N. says the recount will not be completed before September 10. Observers say repeated disputes and delays are threatening the orderly transfer of power and could have dangerous consequences. VOA correspondent Meredith Buel reports.
Video

Video Ukraine Battles Pro-Russia Rebel Assault

After NATO concluded an emergency meeting to discuss the crisis in eastern Ukraine, the country is struggling to contain heavy fighting near the strategic port of Mariupol, on the Azov Sea. Separatist rebels are trying to capture the city, allegedly with Russian military help, and Ukraine's defense forces are digging in. VOA's Daniel Schearf spoke with analysts about what lies ahead for Ukraine.
Video

Video Growing Business Offers Paint with a Twist of Wine

Two New Orleans area women started a small business seven years ago with one thing in mind: to help their neighbors relieve the stress of coping with a hurricane's aftermath. Today their business, which pairs painting and a little bit of wine, has become one of the fastest growing franchises across the U.S. VOA’s June Soh met the entrepreneurs at their newest franchise location in the Washington suburbs.
Video

Video Ebola Vaccine Trials To Begin Next Week

The National Institutes of Health says it is launching early stage trials of a vaccine to prevent the Ebola virus, which has infected or killed thousands of people across West Africa. The World Health Organization says Ebola could infect more than 20,000 people across the region by the time the outbreak is over. The epidemic has health experts and governments scrambling to prevent more people from becoming infected. Zlatica Hoke has more.
Video

Video Asian Bacteria Threatens Florida Orange Trees

Florida's citrus fruit industry is facing a serious threat from a bacteria carried by the Asian insect called psyllid. The widespread infestation again highlights the danger of transferring non-native species to American soil. VOA’s George Putic reports.
Video

Video Aging Will Reduce Economic Growth Worldwide in Coming Decades

The world is getting older, fast. And as more people retire each year, fewer working-age people will be there to replace them. Bond rating agency Moody’s says that will lead to a decline in household savings; reducing global investments - which in turn, will lead to slower economic growth around the world. But experts say it’s not too late to mitigate the economic impact of the world’s aging populations. Mil Arcega has more.
Video

Video Is West Doing Enough to Tackle Islamic State?

U.S. President Barack Obama has ruled out sending ground troops to Iraq to fight militants of the so-called Islamic State, or ISIS, despite officials in Washington describing the extremist group as the biggest threat the United States has faced in years. Henry Ridgwell reports from London on the growing uncertainty over whether the West’s response to ISIS will be enough to defeat the terrorist threat.
Video

Video Coalition to Fight Islamic State Could Reward Assad

The United States along with European and Mideast allies are considering a broader assault against Islamic State fighters who have spread from Syria into Iraq and risk further destabilizing an already troubled region. But as VOA State Department Correspondent Scott Stearns reports, confronting those militants could end up helping the embattled Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
Video

Video Made in America Socks Get Toehold in Online Fashion Market

Three young entrepreneurs are hoping to revolutionize the high-end sock industry by introducing all-American creations of their own. And they’re doing most of it the old-fashioned way. VOA’s Julie Taboh recently caught up with them to learn what goes into making their one-of-a-kind socks.
Video

Video Americans, Ex-Pats Send Relief Supplies to West Africa

Health organizations from around the world are sending supplies and specialists to the West African countries that are dealing with the worst Ebola outbreak in history. On a smaller scale, ordinary Americans and African expatriates living in the United States are doing the same. VOA's Carol Pearson reports.

AppleAndroid