News / Asia

    China's Net Blocking Signals Larger Web Crackdown

    FILE - Chinese Web users are seen at computer workstations.
    FILE - Chinese Web users are seen at computer workstations.

    Related Articles

    Multimedia Column: Finding Workarounds as China Squeezes Internet's new tool helps Chinese access blocked sites

    US Wants Open Internet Highway in Cuba

    US pushes for more and freer Internet access for Cubans, but is Havana on board?

    Video Study: Governments Grow Bolder in Blocking Online Freedom

    Of the 65 nations surveyed by Freedom House, 36 were rated lower on measures of Internet freedom than in the previous year

    A recent move by Beijing to block access to several VPN services has angered some Chinese free speech activists who use the tools to get around China’s formidable Internet firewalls.

    But now some analysts worry the move may signal a much larger and longer-lasting crackdown that could seriously cramp the Communist nation’s struggling economy.

    Users in China of several VPN services, among them VyprVPN, Astrill and StrongVPN, began reporting they were being blocked from accessing those services on the Internet.

    VPN’s, or "virtual private networks," are used to bypass Internet censorship and filtering. In recent years, VPNs have proven very popular in China, not just among free speech activists but with many firms conducting international business from China.

    In a Twitter message to its users, Astrill confirmed the blocks, but said only iOS devices, such as iPads and iPhones, appeared to be targeted.

    Analyzing Web traffic

    Over at its company blog, Golden Frog, the firm behind VyprVPN, also confirmed the new blocks, saying that it "appears that China is using Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) to analyze plain-text Web traffic through the Great Firewall."

    In response, the company is now using the encrypted HTTPS protocol to help bypass China’s DPI filters.

    "The authorities have been doing this for a long time," writes the pseudonymous "Charlie Smith" of the censorship monitoring site in an email to VOA. "But they have never done it as extensively as they are doing it now."

    Smith said his group has been monitoring a "rapid ramping up of Internet controls" in China since June of 2014, and that blocking VPNs -- which the government has mostly ignored up to this point -- is just the next logical step to tighten control.

    "Google got blocked completely last June for the first time. Gmail got blocked completely for the first time in December," he wrote. "Since October, the authorities have launched attacks on Yahoo, Google, Microsoft and Apple, putting sensitive user information at risk and in turn making Chinese netizens suspicious of using foreign services.

    "All of that activity drives Internet users to adopt circumvention tools," he wrote. "By blocking these tools, the authorities are leaving people no option but to use domestic services."

    Services, he adds, that can easily be monitored, filtered or cut off entirely.

    In a written statement to VOA, the U.S. State Department urged authorities in Beijing to lift the blocks and open up a freer Internet.

    "We remain deeply concerned by Chinese government efforts to restrict the free flow of information both offline and online, including the continued blocking of foreign media websites and search engines," the statement said. "Such actions run counter to China’s international commitments to protect freedom of expression."

    However, the South China Morning Post reports that at a Beijing news conference on January 27, Wen Ku, communication development director at the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that new technologies, such as VPNs, make it entirely appropriate for the government to take whatever steps deemed necessary to filter out "inappropriate information" from reaching those online in China.

    China’s next moves

    There are hundreds of VPN services, but overall they all work the same way. A VPN creates what’s commonly called a "tunnel" -- a point-to-point, encrypted connection between your computer and a particular set of servers associated with that VPN service. This tunnel allows users to generally access the sites they wish while hiding their location and identity.  

    VPNs are effective but not foolproof, and generally can be blocked in two ways.

    First, governments can block access to the servers associated with a VPN, which is why some VPNs use a constantly shifting set of servers across different continents.

    Second, as happened at Golden Frog, the websites of VPN companies can simply be blocked, preventing users from ever downloading a service in the first place.

    Internet censorship in China is nothing new, dating back as far as 1998 and the introduction of what’s often termed "The Great Firewall of China."

    What’s of concern to some analysts now is not only that VPNs are being targeted, but more and more websites are being blocked long-term.

    "The government in China has consistently attempted to monitor the Internet and restrict social media in China, which is growing by leaps and bounds," said Michael Auslin, scholar in residence at the American Enterprise Institute, where he focuses on Asian politics and security.

    "This is a particularly sensitive time for the government, one in which the consolidation of power by Xi Jinping is taking on some very sensitive sacred cows, at low and high levels," Auslin said.

    "This is not a time when the government wants to lose control of the national debate. They long ago learned the lesson of the Soviet Union. China wants to maintain political and social control and allow economic reform. That’s the opposite of what the Soviets did and, of course, they collapsed," he added.

    Internet and social media use in China is exploding; the micro-blogging site Sina Weibo alone has over 500 million users.

    Around the firewall

    As authorities have broadened the number of sites being blocked, Chinese netizens have found new ways around the firewall, including using cloud services like Amazon S3, which have become critical for many Chinese businesses to make money.

    Blocking those services, said GreatFire's "Smith," creates economic "collateral damage" for Chinese business, which in turn increases pressure on China’s leaders to loosen their grip on the Web.

    A few analysts have begun raising the possibility that China may eventually follow Iran’s lead and try to build its own intranet, walling off nearly the entire global Internet to all but a select few in that nation.

    Security expert Auslin agrees that might actually happen someday, but probably not anytime soon.

    "One of the biggest problems is it would be disruptive, and that’s not something the government right now wants," he said. "There’s already an economic slowdown, so the government clearly does not want any economic uncertainty or instability."

    That said, Auslin agrees with "Smith" and others that this most recent action blocking VPNs further reinforces China’s apparent desire to seize as much control of the Internet as possible, and that officials may be seriously considering creating a de facto intranet through heavy filtering and censorship.

    “There certainly is the potential that if they felt they could get away with it, and they felt it would not harm business, they would probably go ahead and do it,” he said.

    You can learn much more about VPNs, Web censorship and how to get around firewalls at VOA’s new on-going project “Circumventing Censorship”, a digital handbook to help you get where you want to go online and protect your privacy.

    Doug Bernard

    Doug Bernard covers cyber-issues for VOA, focusing on Internet privacy, security and censorship circumvention. Previously he edited VOA’s “Digital Frontiers” blog, produced the “Daily Download” webcast and hosted “Talk to America”, for which he won the International Presenter of the Year award from the Association for International Broadcasting. He began his career at Michigan Public Radio, and has contributed to "The New York Times," the "Christian Science Monitor," SPIN and NPR, among others. You can follow him @dfrontiers.

    You May Like

    Russian-speaking Muslim Exiles Fear Possible Russia-Turkey Thaw

    Exiled from Russia as Islamic radicals and extremists, thousands found asylum in Turkey

    US Presidential Election Ends at Conventions for Territorial Citizens

    Citizens of US territories like Guam or Puerto Rico enjoy participation in US political process but are denied right to vote for president

    UN Syria Envoy: 'Devil Is in the Details' of Russian Aleppo Proposal

    UN uncertain about the possible humanitarian impact of Russian proposal to establish escape corridors in Aleppo

    This forum has been closed.
    Comment Sorting
    by: Frankie Fook-lun Leung from: Los Angeles
    February 08, 2015 12:18 AM
    China will suffer a knowlege deficit vis-a-vis USA and other freedom of speech countries.

    by: James D. from: montreal
    February 06, 2015 3:17 PM
    There is a way to circumvent this new block - using VPN services that run over 8080. This makes the VPN connection look like a regular SSL connection. There aren't many VPN providers offering this feature, but you can easily set it up yourself.

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    Uganda Unveils its First Solar-powered Busi
    July 28, 2016 4:16 AM
    A solar-powered bus described by its Ugandan makers as the first in Africa has made its public debut. Kiira Motors' electric bus, Kayoola, displayed recently at a stadium in Uganda's capital. From Kampala, Maurice Magorane filed this report narrated by Salem Solomon.

    Video Uganda Unveils its First Solar-powered Bus

    A solar-powered bus described by its Ugandan makers as the first in Africa has made its public debut. Kiira Motors' electric bus, Kayoola, displayed recently at a stadium in Uganda's capital. From Kampala, Maurice Magorane filed this report narrated by Salem Solomon.

    Video Silicon Valley: More Than A Place, It's a Culture

    Silicon Valley is a technology powerhouse and a place that companies such as Google, Facebook and Apple call home. It is a region in northern California that stretches from San Francisco to San Jose. But, more than that, it's known for its startup culture. VOA's Elizabeth Lee went inside one company to find out what it's like to work in a startup.

    Video Immigrant Delegate Marvels at Democratic Process

    It’s been a bitter and divisive election season – but first time Indian-American delegate Dr. Shashi Gupta headed to the Democratic National Convention with a sense of hope. VOA’s Katherine Gypson followed this immigrant with the love of U.S. politics all the way to Philadelphia.

    Video Philadelphia Uses DNC Spotlight to Profile Historic Role in Founding of United States

    The slogan of the Democratic National Convention now underway in Philadelphia is “Let’s Make History Again” which recognizes the role the city played in the foundation of the United States in the 18th century. As VOA’s Kane Farabaugh reports, local institutions are opening their doors in an effort to capitalize on the convention spotlight to draw visitors, and to offer more than just a history lesson.

    Video A Life of Fighting Back: Hillary Clinton Shatters Glass Ceiling

    Hillary Clinton made history Thursday, overcoming personal and political setbacks to become the first woman to win the presidential nomination of a major U.S. political party. If she wins in November, she will go from “first lady” to U.S. Senator from New York, to Secretary of State, to “Madam President.” Polls show Clinton is both beloved and despised. White House Correspondent Cindy Saine takes a look at the life of the woman both supporters and detractors agree is a fighter for the ages.

    Video Dutch Entrepreneurs Turn Rainwater Into Beer

    June has been recorded as one of the wettest months in more than a century in many parts of Europe. To a group of entrepreneurs in Amsterdam the rain came as a blessing, as they used the extra water to brew beer. Serginho Roosblad has more to the story.

    Video First Time Delegate’s First Day Frustrations

    With thousands of people filling the streets of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for the 2016 Democratic National Convention, VOA’s Kane Farabaugh narrowed in on one delegate as she made her first trip to a national party convention. It was a day that was anything but routine for this United States military veteran.

    Video Commerce Thrives on US-Mexico Border

    At the Democratic Convention in Philadelphia this week, the party’s presumptive presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, is expected to attack proposals made by her opponent, Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, to build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border. Last Friday, President Barack Obama hosted his Mexican counterpart, President Enrique Peña Nieto, to underscore the good relations between the two countries. VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from Tucson.

    Video Film Helps Save Ethiopian Children Thought to be Cursed

    'Omo Child' looks at effort of African man to stop killings of ‘mingi’ children

    Video London’s Financial Crown at Risk as Rivals Eye Brexit Opportunities

    By most measures, London rivals New York as the only true global financial center. But Britain’s vote to leave the European Union – so-called ‘Brexit’ – means the city could lose its right to sell services tariff-free across the bloc, risking its position as Europe’s financial headquarters. Already some banks have said they may shift operations to the mainland. Henry Ridgwell reports from London.

    Video Recycling Lifeline for Lebanon’s Last Glassblowers

    In a small Lebanese coastal town, one family is preserving a craft that stretches back millennia. The art of glass blowing was developed by Phoenicians in the region, and the Khalifehs say they are the only ones keeping the skill alive in Lebanon. But despite teaming up with an eco-entrepreneur and receiving an unexpected boost from the country’s recent trash crisis the future remains uncertain. John Owens reports from Sarafand.

    Video Migrants Continue to Risk Lives Crossing US Border from Mexico

    In his speech Thursday before the Republican National Convention, the party’s presidential candidate, Donald Trump, reiterated his proposal to build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border if elected. Polls show a large percentage of Americans support better control of the nation's southwestern border, but as VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from the border town of Nogales in the Mexican state of Sonora, the situation faced by people trying to cross the border is already daunting.

    Special Report

    Adrift The Invisible African Diaspora