News / Asia

Thailand's Junta Moving Further Away From Democratic Rule, Critics Say

Secretary-General of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) Gen. Paiboon Koomchaya, who also in charge of legal and justice affairs, listens to questions during a news conference at the Government House in Bangkok, Thailand, July 23, 2014.
Secretary-General of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) Gen. Paiboon Koomchaya, who also in charge of legal and justice affairs, listens to questions during a news conference at the Government House in Bangkok, Thailand, July 23, 2014.

Critics of Thailand's new interim charter are saying it does just the opposite of what the military claims: paving the way for a return to democratic civil rule. Further reaction to the temporary constitution, which was issued this week.

A former cabinet minister, considered a fugitive by Thailand's military leaders, is calling the country's new interim constitution one of the most repressive decrees yet from the junta.

New Interim contstitution
 
Jakrapob Penkair, among those who has set up in exile the Organization of Free Thais for Human Rights and Democracy (FT-HD), spoke to VOA via Skype from an undisclosed location outside Thailand.   “This military regime puts itself in the constitution above the whole system," he said. "Even if you have the national assembly elected or appointed or you have a government elected or appointed, the final say would be them, would be the military regime.”
 
Jakrapob, a founding leader of the “red shirts” movement, sees the military returning the kingdom to the political system of the 1980's and 90's when parties were weakened to the point of having no alternative but to form unstable coalitions. “In that kind of fragile political coalition anything could collapse very easily," he stated. "I guess that's what they want.”  
 
 Human rights violations

The international organization Human Rights Watch is calling for the junta to amend what it is characterizes as “a charter for dictatorship,” which gives the military's leaders “sweeping powers without accountability or safeguards against human rights violations.”
 
The Asia director for Human Rights Watch, Brad Adams, fears some of the articles in the interim charter could be implemented in a planned permanent constitution.
 
“This could be the seeds for a very long period of a Burmese [Myanmar]-style military-controlled quasi-democracy. And that should be worrying to everybody in the region and around the world because Thailand has been a country that has embraced democracy in the past and has done reasonably well, compared to a lot of other countries,” Adams noted.
 
Adams, speaking to VOA via Skype from San Francisco, predicts this latest of Thailand's numerous coups is likely to be more enduring.  “Some coups have a very short duration with constitutions that are quickly passed by the military and then elections that are announced as a way back to a democratic path. But, in this case, while they say they're going to do that they've passed an interim constitution that basically gives all power to the military leadership and some to the future prime minister who is very likely to be the current military chief.” he said.
 
Out with old, in with new

Both a deputy and an aide to the junta boss this week said they do not rule out General Prayuth Chan-ocha being selected as prime minister. But they stressed it will be up to the provisional parliament to choose a government leader who would serve until the next election, expected no earlier than October 2015.
 
Yingluck Shinawatra was forced out as prime minister this year following six months of rallies in Bangkok.
 
Yingluck flew to Europe this week. A photograph posted on social media showed her hugging her brother, former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, on arrival in Paris.
 
There has been speculation whether Yingluck intends to join Thaksin in self-imposed exile or return home in August, as she has promised, to fight court cases filed against her.
 
There have been no public rallies in Thailand against the interim charter. Public opinion polls published by newspapers, which are under the strictest level of censorship seen here in decades, show the majority of Thais supporting the junta's reform push.
 
The military, since the May 22 coup, has engaged in a number of populist programs, including offering free concerts and movies, as well delving into police matters, such as cracking down on illegal parking and overcharging by motorcycle taxi drivers.
 
Quasi-democracy

The junta has authority to summon anyone making comments deemed to be political or that could cause unrest.
 
Since the May 22 coup hundreds of people have been called in for questioning and temporary detention. Most of those targeted are considered allies of the Shinawatra clan, critics of the military or Thailand’s harsh lese majeste laws.
 
The Committee on the Internet Dialogue on Law Reform (iLaw), part of the Thai Volunteer Service Foundation, Friday released a list of charges  filed against more than 100 people since the May 22 coup.
 
While some of the charges are serious, such as possession of weapons and ammunition, others are as seemingly mundane such as reading aloud anti-coup poems outside a shopping mall.  
 
This week Thailand’s revered monarch formally endorsed the interim charter in a ceremony with General Prayuth, the army’s chief. That took place at a royal palace in the coastal city Hua Hin where the ailing 86-year-old King Bhumibol Adulyadej has been convalescing.
 
The ceremony is seen as providing additional royal legitimacy to the military council by endorsing the new laws it composed.
 
The interim legislature selected by the junta is to choose a committee that will draw up a new constitution, which will then be submitted to a reform committee for approval. It is unclear whether there will be a public referendum on the permanent constitution.
 
The junta’s roadmap for what it calls a return to democracy is essentially in line with what was demanded by protesters in Bangkok who occupied parts of the capital for months calling for the ouster of then-Prime Minister Yingluck.  
 
Since the end of absolute monarchial rule in 1932 Thailand has experienced frequent overthrows of civilian governments by the military. The generals or judicial action have deposed three governments since 2006.
 
The last five national elections in Thailand have been won by parties supported by billionaire Thaksin Shinawatra, Yingluck's older brother. He was ousted as prime minister in a 2006 coup and convicted two years later by a military-appointed panel.  
 
After Yingluck's removal in May of this year, General Prayuth declared martial law and then seized all power himself.
 
Jakrapob, the opposition group leader in exile, said the interim charter appears clearly designed “to prevent the likes of Thaksin and the Thai Rak Thai to ever occur again in Thailand.”
 
The Thai Rak Thai party was founded by Thaksin in 1998 and banned in 2007.
 
But Jakrapob expresses confidence that the 2014 coup will not be able to sustain power in the long term.
 
“Many military junta regimes in Thailand have been defeated when people move,” he said. “We hope that is going to happen sometime soon, perhaps in months or years.”


Steve Herman

A veteran journalist, Steve Herman is VOA's Southeast Asia Bureau Chief and Correspondent, based in Bangkok.

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Comment Sorting
Comments
     
by: Chai Putha from: Thailand
July 26, 2014 11:26 PM
Democracy brings violent to Thai people. Do you want Thailand being as Afganistan, Ukrain or Iraq ?

by: Lone Eagle from: Bangkok, Thailand
July 26, 2014 1:58 AM
The May 22nd coup is a disaster for Thailand and a potential security threat for Southeast Asia since a democratically elected government was removed by a military coup setting back the development of liberal democracy in Thailand and for the region as a whole. I have lived in Thailand for over 30 years. There was no reason for the removal of PM Yingluck's government since there was no credible evidence of corruption in her government. Her brother Thaksin, a previous PM capitalized on income inequality in Thailand between Bangkok and the north and northeast regions of the country by being democratically elected. In my travels around Bangkok I have queried Bangkokians what evidence was there of corruption in the Yingluck government and they would invariably refer to the rice price support program instituted by Yingluck's government. Yet the Bangkokians that I spoke to did not know that it was a legitimate approach used by other countries, notably the United States. For some odd reason the Bangkokians that I spoke to thought that populist programs instituted by Yingluck and her brother were a form of corruption since it was payback to their supporters. I pointed out this was common in the United States and described what pork was in the American political system, which was surprise to them. I ended my discussion by saying that PM's Yingluck and Thaksin were typical American politicians, which seemed only to annoy them even further.
In Response

by: brian barwick from: bangkok
July 27, 2014 1:17 AM
So what you are saying is that the Yinluck government is as corrupt as the US government, right?

by: don from: bangkok
July 25, 2014 10:23 PM
Any comments from Jakrapob must be viewed as biased and coming from a corrupt lapdog of the fugitive former prime minister Thaksin. This group of crooks continue to speak to the world of democracy as if they are the good guys, but their form of democracy is nothing but a farce for them to plunder the country.
In Response

by: rong from: Thailand
July 26, 2014 8:49 PM
I don't know what you think. Do you think that the red shirts burned. Due to the recent court proved not to act on the red shirts. Then you say that the coup make caused love and unity. Because of the coup to eliminate Thaksin system down. Sure that you are creating a new regime is the best. The situation is calm, it is always on the end of the gun barrel. Happy because Martial Law stifle it. It's waiting to explode, after this.

Creating harmony with the coup. Power to self-assertion Is not an acceptable way of democracy world.
In Response

by: Ronn from: Thailand
July 26, 2014 4:33 AM
Absolutely. I couldn't agree with you more.
In Response

by: notdisappointed from: Bangkok, Thailand
July 26, 2014 2:52 AM
I agree with don with respect to jakrapop. jakrapop'(actually thaksin's) red shirts looted, burned, and pillaged Bangkok during their occupation of the city. Compare this with the peaceful 7 months of demonstrations against graft and cooruption of the yingluck government. The only violence that occured was from the killings of these peaceful protestors by the red shirts.

Give the military a chance to reform and reset the country along the right path before critizing according to your own cultural and democratic biases. The last coup that kicked out thaksin was too wishy washy and was not able to root out his evil influences. This one has a good chance to ensure that thaksin's evilness will no longer be divisive for the country.

by: Lime from: Dublin
July 25, 2014 9:20 PM
Suthep is no barking loud anymore ?
In Response

by: notdisappointed from: Bangkok, Thailand
July 26, 2014 2:55 AM
Now it's thaksin's surrogates, such as jakrapop turn to bark. But their barking will have no affect to the outcome of cleansing the stench of thaksin from the political landscape of Thailand.

by: Frankie Fook-lun Leung from: Los Angeles
July 25, 2014 4:50 PM
In Korea, Thailand, Burma and Indonesia, there was a tradition of military generals taking off their uniforms to become politicians. Is this happening again in Thailand?

by: Frankie Fook-lun Leung from: Los Angeles
July 25, 2014 12:32 PM
At one time in Thailand, there were more changes of government than people changing light bulbs. It shows how difficult it is to establish a functioning democracy.
In Response

by: notdisappointed from: Bangkok, Thailand
July 26, 2014 3:02 AM
Does it matter what attire one wears before becoming a politician? Even Generals Alexander Haig and Colin Powell became a Secretary of State after their retirements.

What is and was worrying, is when a businessman like thaksin became PM and used his business acumen to steal the country blind.

That's the reason for the coup and the reason that extraordinary powers are n the hands of the military. To ensure that no wishy washy compromises are forthcoming to lighten the guilt of thaksin and his clan and stooges.

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