News / Science & Technology

Crocodiles, Alligators May Lure Prey with Sticks

A well-camouflaged mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) in stick-displaying behavior. Madras Crocodile Bank, Tamil Nadu, India. (V. Dinets)
A well-camouflaged mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) in stick-displaying behavior. Madras Crocodile Bank, Tamil Nadu, India. (V. Dinets)

Related Articles

Cyanide Kills Elephants, Ecosystem

Poachers kill hundreds of elephants in Zimbabwe

Lion Population Devastated by Illegal Snares

Snares set to catch antelope and other bush meat often catch lions, often crippling or killing them

Oil Rush in Africa's Parks Drives Hunt for Eco-friendly Methods

Oil companies explore new oil sources without damaging the environment
Egrets and other birds building nests near ponds that harbor crocodiles or alligators should be suspicious of sticks they see floating in the water. That twig or branch may be bait for a trap set by the reptiles, as new research suggests they may have joined the few species that use tools to lure prey.

According to Valdimir Dinets, a zoologist known for his studies of crocodilian (crocodiles and alligators) behavior, two species of the large reptiles have been observed using twigs and sticks as bird lures.

“At least one of them uses this method predominantly during the nest-building season of its prey,” he writes in a paper published in the journal Ethology Ecology & Evolution. “This is the first known case of a predator not just using objects as lures, but also taking into account the seasonality of prey behavior. It provides a surprising insight into previously unrecognized complexity of archosaurian behavior.”

According to the study, the use of objects as hunting lures is very rare among animals, only seen in captive capuchin monkeys, a few bird species and one insect.

Writing in the study, Dinets states that “it is common for some bird species to preferentially nest in trees growing in ponds with large numbers of crocodiles or alligators, apparently using the crocodilians as protection against tree-climbing nest predators such as snakes, monkeys and raccoons.”

But, he says, the birds have to “pay” for the protection because their chicks can sometimes fall into the water where they are usually devoured by crocodilians.

“But the protection seems to be worth the cost,” Dinets writes. “Almost any crocodile farm or alligator park with appropriate trees will sooner or later become the location of an egret rookery.”

An American alligator chomps a snowy egret at the St Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, Florida. (Don Specht)An American alligator chomps a snowy egret at the St Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, Florida. (Don Specht)
x
An American alligator chomps a snowy egret at the St Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, Florida. (Don Specht)
An American alligator chomps a snowy egret at the St Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park, Florida. (Don Specht)
Dinets says he repeatedly saw crocodilians laying in shallow water with small sticks or twigs across their snouts around rookeries.

“The crocodiles remained perfectly still for hours, and if they did move to change position, they did it in such a way that the sticks remained balanced on their snouts,” he writes.

Dinets says the predators get the sticks onto their snouts by submerging under them.

“Then it takes some balancing act to keep the sticks in place,” he said in an email.

Observing alligators at two egret nesting sites for a year, Dinets saw stick displaying mostly during the bird’s breeding season, between March and June and more frequently during nest building, from late March and April.

Dinets noted that the increase in the behavior could be explained by higher amounts of sticks in the water, either because of nest building or trees shedding. He thinks, however that that explanation “seems unlikely.”

“Virtually no freely floating sticks or twigs were seen by the observer at that time, and none are visible in photographs of rookery ponds made at that time,” writes Dinets. “Any available sticks were probably quickly picked up by birds looking for nest material.”

Also, he notes that the most common trees around the waters don’t often shed branches.

Dinets says it’s “unknown” what factors lead to the stick-displaying behavior at particular locations and at certain times of the year.

“The predators might be reacting to the presence of large numbers of wading birds flying low over water, to the sounds made by courting birds, or to some other environmental clue,” he writes.

He also doesn’t know if the behavior is a learned behavior or an evolved instinct.

While Dinets says crocodilians have historically been viewed as “lethargic, stupid and boring,” the new research adds to the complex behavior already known such as signaling, advanced parental care and “highly coordinated group hunting tactics.”

“These discoveries are interesting not just because they show how easy it is to underestimate the intelligence of even relatively familiar animals, but also because crocodilians are a sister taxon of dinosaurs and flying reptiles,” he concludes.

You May Like

Gun Nation

This is who America's gun owners are More

US Border Patrol Union Accused of Taking Sides on Immigration

Report alleges agents leaking info to immigration opponents, appearing at their private events; Center for Immigration Studies director defends agents' actions More

Video Rights Monitor: Hate Groups' Use of Internet to Inflame, Recruit Growing

Wiesenthal Center's Abraham Cooper says extremists have become skilled at celebrating violence, ideology on Web More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Hate Groups Spread Influence Via Interneti
X
Mike O'Sullivan
June 30, 2015 8:20 PM
Hate groups of various kinds are using the Internet for propaganda and recruitment, and a Jewish human rights organization that monitors these groups, the Simon Wiesenthal Center, says their influence is growing. The messages are different, but the calls to hatred or violence are similar. VOA's Mike O’Sullivan reports.
Video

Video Hate Groups Spread Influence Via Internet

Hate groups of various kinds are using the Internet for propaganda and recruitment, and a Jewish human rights organization that monitors these groups, the Simon Wiesenthal Center, says their influence is growing. The messages are different, but the calls to hatred or violence are similar. VOA's Mike O’Sullivan reports.
Video

Video US Silica Sand Mining Surge Worries Illinois Residents, Businesses

Increased domestic U.S. oil and gas production, thanks to advances known as “fracking,” has created a boom for other industries supporting that extraction. Demand for silica sand, used in fracking, could triple over the next five years. In the Midwest state of Illinois, people living near the mines are worried about how increased silica sand mining will affect their businesses and their health. VOA’s Kane Farabaugh has more in this first of a series of reports.
Video

Video Blind Somali Journalist Defies Odds in Mogadishu

Despite improving security in the last few years, Somalia remains one of the most dangerous countries to be a journalist – even more so for someone who cannot see. Abdulaziz Billow has the story of journalist Abdifatah Hassan Kalgacal, who has been reporting from the Somali capital for the last decade despite being blind.
Video

Video Texas Defies Same-Sex Marriage Ruling

Texas state officials have criticized the US Supreme Court decision giving same-sex couples the right to marry nationwide. The attorney general of Texas says last week's decision did not overrule constitutional "rights of religious liberty," and therefore officials performing wedding services can refuse to perform them for same-sex couples if it is against their religious beliefs. Zlatica Hoke reports on the controversy.
Video

Video Syrians Flee IS Advance in Hasaka

The Syrian government said Monday it has taken back one of several districts in Hasaka overrun by Islamic State militants. But continued fighting elsewhere in the northern city has forced thousands of civilians from their homes. In this report narrated by Bill Rodgers, VOA Kurdish Service reporter Zana Omer describes the scene in Amouda, where some of the displaced are taking refuge.
Video

Video Rabbi Hits Road to Heal Jewish-Muslim Relations in France

France is on high alert after last week's terrorist attack near the city Lyon, just six months after deadly Paris shootings. The attack have added new tensions to relations between French Jews and Muslims. France’s Jewish and Muslim communities also share a common heritage, though, and as far as one French rabbi is concerned, they are destined to be friends. From the Paris suburb of La Courneuve, Lisa Bryant reports about Rabbi Michel Serfaty and his friendship bus.
Video

Video S. Korea Christians Protest Gay Rights Festival

The U.S. Supreme Court decision mandating marriage equality nationwide has energized gay rights supporters around the world. Gay rights remain a highly contentious issue in a key U.S. ally, South Korea, where police did a deft job Sunday of preventing potential clashes between Christian protesters and gay activists. Kurt Achin reports from Seoul.
Video

Video Saudi Leaks Expose ‘Checkbook Diplomacy’ In Battle With Iran

Saudi Arabia’s willingness to wield its oil money on the global diplomatic stage appears to have been laid bare, after the website WikiLeaks published tens of thousands of leaked cables from Riyadh’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. VOA's Henry Ridgwell reports.
Video

Video Nubians in Kenya Face Land Challenges

East Africa's ethnic Nubians have a rich cultural history that dates back thousands of years, but in Kenya they are facing hardships, including the loss of lands they have lived on for generations. They say the government has reneged on its pledge to award them title deeds for the plots. VOA's Lenny Ruvaga reports.
Video

Video Military Experts Question New Russian Tank Capabilities

Russia has been showing off its new tank design – the Armata T-14. Designers claim it is 20 years ahead of current Western designs - and driving it feels like playing a computer game. But military analysts question those assertions, and warn the cost could be too heavy a burden for Russia’s struggling economy. Henry Ridgwell reports.
Video

Video In Kenya, Police Said to Shoot First, Ask Questions Later

An organization that documents torture and extrajudicial killings says Kenyan police were responsible for 1,252 shooting deaths in five cities, including Nairobi, between 2009 and 2014, representing 67 percent of all gun deaths in the areas reviewed. Gabe Joselow has more from Nairobi.
Video

Video In Syrian Crisis, Social Media Offer Small Comforts

Za’atari, a makeshift city in Jordan, may be the only Syrian refugee camp to tweet its activities, in an effort to keep donors motivated as the war in Syria intensifies and the humanitarian crisis deepens. Inside the camp, families say mobile phone applications help hold together families that are physically torn apart. VOA’s Heather Murdock reports.

VOA Blogs