News / Science & Technology

Evidence Found of Water Deep Below Lunar Surface

Visitors stand on the roof of a skyscraper as the moon rises over the skyline of Lujiazui financial district of Pudong in Shanghai, Aug. 16, 2013.
Visitors stand on the roof of a skyscraper as the moon rises over the skyline of Lujiazui financial district of Pudong in Shanghai, Aug. 16, 2013.

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New evidence has emerged indicating there is water from an “unknown source” locked in mineral grains on the surface of the moon. According to the U.S. space agency, NASA, the source of the water is likely “deep beneath the surface” of the moon.

"This rock, which normally resides deep beneath the surface, was excavated from the lunar depths by the impact that formed Bullialdus crater," said Rachel Klima, a planetary geologist at the Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, in a statement.

Researchers used data from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The data showed evidence of “magmatic water, or water that originates from deep within the moon's interior, on the surface of the moon.”

The central peak of the Bullialdus crater is made up of a type of rock that forms deep within the lunar crust and mantle when magma is trapped underground.

"Compared to its surroundings, we found that the central portion of this crater contains a significant amount of hydroxyl -- a molecule consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom -- which is evidence that the rocks in this crater contain water that originated beneath the lunar surface," Klima said.

In 2009, water molecules were discovered by the M3 instrument in the moon’s polar regions. That water is thought to be only a thin layer formed when the solar wind hits the moon. The Bullialdus crater area is in an area where solar winds would not lead to the production of water.

The findings, published Aug. 25, in Nature Geoscience, represent the first detection from lunar orbit of this form of water. Earlier studies had shown the existence of magmatic water in lunar samples returned during the Apollo program.

For many years, researchers believed the rocks from the moon were completely dry and that any water detected in the Apollo samples had to be contamination from Earth.

"Now that we have detected water that is likely from the interior of the moon, we can start to compare this water with other characteristics of the lunar surface," said Klima. "This internal magmatic water also provides clues about the moon's volcanic processes and internal composition, which helps us address questions about how the moon formed, and how magmatic processes changed as it cooled."

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by: Babu G. Ranganathan from: Pennsylvania
August 29, 2013 11:02 AM
SCIENCE SHOWS THAT THE UNIVERSE CANNOT BE ETERNAL because it could not have sustained itself eternally due to the law of entropy (increasing energy decay, even in an open system). Einstein showed that space, matter, and time all are physical and all had a beginning. Space even produces particles because it’s actually something, not nothing. Even time had a beginning! Time is not eternal. Popular atheistic scientist Stephen Hawking admits that the universe came from nothing but he believes that nothing became something by a natural process yet to be discovered. That's not rational thinking at all, and it also would be making the effect greater than its cause to say that nothing created something. The beginning had to be of supernatural origin because natural laws and processes do not have the ability to bring something into existence from nothing. What about the Higgs boson (the so-called “God Particle”)? The Higgs boson does not create mass from nothing, but rather it converts energy into mass. Einstein showed that all matter is some form of energy.

The supernatural cannot be proved by science but science points to a supernatural intelligence and power for the origin and order of the universe. Where did God come from? Obviously, unlike the universe, God’s nature doesn’t require a beginning.

EXPLAINING HOW AN AIRPLANE WORKS doesn't mean no one made the airplane. Explaining how life or the universe works doesn't mean there was no Maker behind them. Natural laws may explain how the order in the universe works and operates, but mere undirected natural laws cannot explain the origin of that order. Once you have a complete and living cell then the genetic code and biological machinery exist to direct the formation of more cells, but how could life or the cell have naturally originated when no directing code and mechanisms existed in nature? Read my Internet article: HOW FORENSIC SCIENCE REFUTES ATHEISM.

WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science simply is knowledge based on observation. No one observed the universe coming by chance or by design, by creation or by evolution. These are positions of faith. The issue is which faith the scientific evidence best supports.

Visit my newest Internet site: THE SCIENCE SUPPORTING CREATION

Babu G. Ranganathan*
(B.A. Bible/Biology)


*I have given successful lectures (with question and answer period afterwards) defending creation before evolutionist science faculty and students at various colleges and universities. I've been privileged to be recognized in the 24th edition of Marquis "Who's Who in The East" for my writings on religion and science.

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