News / Health

    Experts Evaluate What They Learned About Ebola

    FILE - A health worker stands at Elwa hospital in Monrovia, Sept. 7, 2014.
    FILE - A health worker stands at Elwa hospital in Monrovia, Sept. 7, 2014.
    Carol Pearson

    One day after the World Health Organization declared all of West Africa Ebola-free, a new case was confirmed in Sierra Leone.

    According to the Associated Press, a spokesman for the Office of National Security in Sierra Leone identified the victim, who died, as a 22-year-old woman from the northern part of the country.

    The WHO has warned that new cases would likely flare up from time to time because the virus can live on in its victims even after they recover from their symptoms.

    The health agency said the local government has responded rapidly and that a team of local authorities, the WHO and other partners are investigating the new case. Sierra Leone's new emergency operations center is coordinating the response and initiating control measures to prevent further transmission.

    It's been more than two years since a young boy contracted the first suspected case of Ebola in the forests of Guinea.

    The disease has claimed more than 11,000 lives and sickened more than 28,000 people in the West African countries.

    Thursday, the WHO declared Liberia Ebola free for the third time since last May. Liberians received the news with mixed emotions.

    Hannah Banwon, a nurse in Liberia, lost 13 members of her family to Ebola. (P. Collins/VOA)
    Hannah Banwon, a nurse in Liberia, lost 13 members of her family to Ebola. (P. Collins/VOA)

    Hannah Banwon, a nurse who lost 13 members of her family to the disease, said it started with her sister-in-law. Then, her sister started bleeding.

    "I told them that it was the sign of Ebola," Banwon said, "but they didn't really believe me, and because of that many of the family died."

    "At that time we didn't have enough equipment to help," she said.

    And that was the crux of the problem: not enough hospital beds, too many hospitals with no running water or electricity, too few laboratories to diagnose the disease, too few people to trace the contacts of the sick so they could stop the progression of the disease, too slow a response from the international community, and weak public health systems.

    The World Health Organization said while flare-ups of Ebola in are expected, another massive outbreak is not.

    More work needed

    Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said the world is better prepared now than it was two years ago, "but not nearly as prepared as we need to be.”

    “We need to build systems around the world to find things when they first emerge,” he said, “to stop them rapidly, and to prevent them whenever that's possible."

    The CDC sent doctors, epidemiologists, communications specialists and other staff to West Africa to train health workers, teach people how to stay safe, convince them that Ebola is real and very deadly, and help with contact tracing so the disease could be stopped.

    Dr. Anthony Fauci, who oversees infectious disease research at the National Institutes of Health, agreed that poor health care systems enabled Ebola to sweep through West Africa with such ferocity.

    While it's important to build sustainable health care capacity in low- and middle-income countries, he said, "the countries themselves need to realize that that is an important priority for them, and they need to put the resources in."

    FILE - Cassius Kollie (R), 24, receives a certificate for being cured of Ebola in Paynesville, Liberia, July 20, 2015.
    FILE - Cassius Kollie (R), 24, receives a certificate for being cured of Ebola in Paynesville, Liberia, July 20, 2015.

    A lot has been learned about treating Ebola, Fauci said.

    "In the beginning, we heard that it was 90 percent fatal to have Ebola," he said. "Then we found out that when you provide the appropriate care, you can bring that down to 20, 30 percent, sometimes."

    When patients were given enough fluids and the symptoms of the disease were addressed, their survival rates improved significantly, even though there is no treatment specifically for the disease itself.

    ‘Durable’ answers key

    Scientists learned things, too, about the value of maintaining strict scientific standards when it comes to experimental treatments.

    "We've learned that when you have an outbreak, even though you need to deliver care in the best possible way, that when you do research, you’ve got to do it in a scientifically sound, transparent way, so that when you get an answer, it's a durable answer," Fauci said, because otherwise, "you may wind up at the end of the epidemic not really knowing what works and what doesn't work, which unfortunately, was the case with some of the medications and therapies that were distributed" during the epidemic.

    It became abundantly apparent during the outbreak that the World Health Organization was not up to the task of organizing and mobilizing a response to the Ebola outbreak, according to many experts, including Frieden.

    "We need a WHO where technical competence rules,” he said, “and where the human resources are fit to what's needed to run programs, to give technical advice, to coordinate among partners."

    The WHO has acknowledged its shortcomings and has made recommendations for change.

    FILE - A health worker prepares to inject a man with an Ebola vaccine in Conakry, Guinea, March 7, 2015.
    FILE - A health worker prepares to inject a man with an Ebola vaccine in Conakry, Guinea, March 7, 2015.

    ‘Not about profit alone’

    Large pharmaceutical companies like Merck — or MSD, as it is known outside the U.S. — also want to be involved, according to Dr. Julie Gerberding, the company's president.

    Gerberding told a conference in Washington that the "Industry steps up because we want to," and that "pharmaceutical companies are not about profit alone."

    But beyond that, she stressed that the large pharmaceutical companies can develop and produce vaccines and treatments on the kind of scale that's needed. Merck was instrumental in producing the highly successful Ebola vaccine that was used in Guinea.

    But the valuable lessons learned during the Ebola epidemic won't matter if they aren't taken to heart. Nigeria stopped Ebola from spreading in Lagos, a city of 21 million, because of the infrastructure in place to test and isolate Ebola patients. If Ebola had spread through Lagos, the epidemic might not be over.

    "I fear that the world will forget how close we got to a total global catastrophe with Ebola, and how much worse it could have been," Frieden said, adding, "That's why it's so important that we implement effective programs rapidly, get other countries around the world to do more to strengthen those core detection and response capacities, and that we have sustained funding" for programs to protect people from global health threats posed by infectious diseases.

    Funding is critical.

    Lawrence Gostin, a professor of global health law at Georgetown University, told VOA, "We have to keep our foot on the pedal ... because the next time we may not be so fortunate as to have something we can contain. We might have a novel influenza that will literally sweep the world and cause millions of deaths in its wake, and we can't allow that to happen."

    Prince Collins contributed to this report from Monrovia, Liberia.

    You May Like

    US-Russia Tensions Complicate Syria War

    With a shared enemy and opposing allies, Russia and the US are working to avoid confrontation

    Video Re-opening Old Wounds in Beirut's Bullet-riddled Yellow House

    Built in neo-Ottoman style in 1920s, it is set to be re-opened in Sept. as ‘memory museum’ - bullet-riddled walls and bunkered positions overlooking city’s notorious ‘Green Line’ maintained for posterity

    Cambodian-Americans Lobby for Human Rights Resolution

    Resolution condemns all forms of political violence in Cambodia, urges Cambodian government to end human rights violations, calls for respect of press freedom

    This forum has been closed.
    Comments
         
    There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    Brexit Vote Plunges Global Markets Into Uncharted Territoryi
    X
    June 24, 2016 9:38 PM
    British voters plunged global markets into unknown territory after they voted Thursday to leave the European Union. The results of the Brexit vote, the term coined to describe the referendum, caught many off guard. Analysts say the resulting volatility could last for weeks, perhaps longer. Mil Arcega reports.
    Video

    Video Brexit Vote Plunges Global Markets Into Uncharted Territory

    British voters plunged global markets into unknown territory after they voted Thursday to leave the European Union. The results of the Brexit vote, the term coined to describe the referendum, caught many off guard. Analysts say the resulting volatility could last for weeks, perhaps longer. Mil Arcega reports.
    Video

    Video Orlando Shooting Changes Debate on Gun Control

    It’s been nearly two weeks since the largest mass shooting ever in the United States. Despite public calls for tighter gun control laws, Congress is at an impasse. Democratic lawmakers resorted to a 1960s civil rights tactic to portray their frustration. VOA’s Carolyn Presutti explains how the Orlando, Florida shooting is changing the debate.
    Video

    Video Tunisian Fishing Town Searches for Jobs, Local Development Solutions

    As the European Union tries to come to grips with its migrant crisis, some newcomers are leaving voluntarily. But those returning to their home countries face an uncertain future.  Five years after Tunisia's revolution, the tiny North African country is struggling with unrest, soaring unemployment and plummeting growth. From the southern Tunisian fishing town of Zarzis, Lisa Bryant takes a look for VOA at a search for local solutions.
    Video

    Video 'American Troops' in Russia Despite Tensions

    Historic battle re-enactment is a niche hobby with a fair number of adherents in Russia where past military victories are played-up by the Kremlin as a show of national strength. But, one group of World War II re-enactors in Moscow has the rare distinction of choosing to play western ally troops. VOA's Daniel Schearf explains.
    Video

    Video Experts: Very Few Killed in US Gun Violence Are Victims of Mass Shootings

    The deadly shooting at a Florida nightclub has reignited the debate in the U.S. over gun control. Although Congress doesn't provide government health agencies funds to study gun violence, public health experts say private research has helped them learn some things about the issue. VOA's Carol Pearson reports.
    Video

    Video Trump Unleashes Broadside Against Clinton to Try to Ease GOP Doubts

    Recent public opinion polls show Republican Donald Trump slipping behind Democrat Hillary Clinton in the presidential election matchup for November. Trump trails her both in fundraising and campaign organization, but he's intensifying his attacks on the former secretary of state. VOA National Correspondent Jim Malone reports.
    Video

    Video Muslim American Mayor Calls for Tolerance

    Syrian-born Mohamed Khairullah describes himself as "an American mayor who happens to be Muslim." As the three-term mayor of Prospect Park, New Jersey, he believes his town of 6,000 is an example of how ethnicity and religious beliefs should not determine a community's leadership. Ramon Taylor has this report from Prospect Park.
    Video

    Video Internal Rifts Over Syria Policy Could Be Headache for Next US President

    With the Obama administration showing little outward enthusiasm for adopting a more robust Syria policy, there is a strong likelihood that the internal discontent expressed by State Department employees will roll over to the next administration. VOA State Department correspondent Pam Dockins reports.
    Video

    Video Senegal to Park Colorful ‘Cars Rapide’ Permanently

    Brightly painted cars rapide are a hallmark of Dakar, offering residents a cheap way to get around the capital city since 1976. But the privately owned minibuses are scheduled to be parked for good in late 2018, as Ricci Shryock reports for VOA.
    Video

    Video Florida Gets $1 Million in Emergency Government Funding for Orlando

    The U.S. government has granted $1 million in emergency funding to the state of Florida to cover the costs linked to the June 12 massacre in Orlando. U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch announced the grant Tuesday in Orlando, where she met with survivors of the shooting attack that killed 49 people. Zlatica Hoke reports.
    Video

    Video How to Print Impossible Shapes with Metal

    3-D printing with metals is rapidly becoming more advanced. As printers become more affordable, the industry is partnering with universities to refine processes for manufacturing previously impossible things. A new 3-D printing lab aims to bring the new technology closer to everyday use. VOA's George Putic reports.
    Video

    Video Big Somali Community in Minnesota Observes Muslim Religious Feast

    Ramadan is widely observed in the north central US state of Minnesota, which a large Muslim community calls home. VOA Somali service reporter Mohmud Masadde files this report from Minneapolis, the state's biggest city.

    Special Report

    Adrift The Invisible African Diaspora