News / Asia

Experts: Treaties Complicate US Position in China-Japan Islands Dispute

Workers on the city government of Tokyo's survey vessel prepare to survey around a group of disputed islands known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China in the East China Sea September 2, 2012. The city government of Tokyo sent a ship to survey a group Workers on the city government of Tokyo's survey vessel prepare to survey around a group of disputed islands known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China in the East China Sea September 2, 2012. The city government of Tokyo sent a ship to survey a group
x
Workers on the city government of Tokyo's survey vessel prepare to survey around a group of disputed islands known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China in the East China Sea September 2, 2012. The city government of Tokyo sent a ship to survey a group
Workers on the city government of Tokyo's survey vessel prepare to survey around a group of disputed islands known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China in the East China Sea September 2, 2012. The city government of Tokyo sent a ship to survey a group
The United States says it is staying out of a Japanese-Chinese dispute about uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, but its position on the issue has angered Beijing and caused some anxiety in Tokyo.

Some regional experts say the Japanese and Chinese concerns are linked to decades-old U.S.-Japan treaty obligations.

The Obama administration says it takes "no position on the ultimate sovereignty" of the Japanese-controlled archipelago, known as Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China. The surrounding waters contain rich fishing grounds and potential oil and mineral reserves.

It repeatedly has urged the two countries to avoid incidents that could escalate the dispute, and to begin negotiations to resolve it.

Japan annexed the tiny islands in 1895 and held them until the end of the Second World War, when the United States took control. Washington returned the islands to Japanese control in 1972, drawing protests from Beijing, which declared them to be Chinese territory the year before.

The dispute flared up again last month, when Chinese and Japanese nationalists landed on the islands to assert their countries' claims. U.S. officials responded by urging Tokyo and Beijing to resolve the dispute peacefully.

1960 defense treaty

U.S. Naval War College professor Toshi Yoshihara said the U.S. position is complicated by a 1960 treaty pledging a U.S. military response to an attack on Japanese-administered territories.

U.S. officials have said they see the disputed islands as part of the territories covered by that defense treaty. But they have refused to elaborate on what circumstances would trigger U.S. military intervention.

Yoshihara said Washington does not want to say anything that could encourage Japan to confront China. But he said the U.S. approach also makes some Japanese policy makers uncomfortable.

"'Some Japanese seem preconditioned to doubt American reassurances [about the islands] and would prefer more clarity," he said.

U.S. attempts to reassure Japan about the treaty have upset China. This week, as Secretary of State Hillary Clinton traveled in Asia, Chinese state media accused Washington of having a "dangerous" and "contradictory" policy on the islands because it recognizes Japan's administration of them and calls them by the Japanese name.

Watch related video



1972 military agreement

1895
Japan unilaterally annexes five islands and three barren rock groups in the East China Sea, calls them "Senkaku." China's Qing Dynasty later cedes Taiwan and adjacent islands to Japan under the Treaty of Shimonoseki, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.  Senkaku Islands are not included in the treaty.
 
1896
Japan's government leases four of the islands, known in Japanese as Uotsuri, Minami, Kita and Kuba, to Tatsushiro Koga. 
 
1945
Japan surrenders, ending World War II, and returns Taiwan and adjacent islands to China in accordance with the Cairo Proclamation and Potsdam Declaration. The U.S. military takes control of the Senkaku Islands. 
 
1969
U.N. report says studies suggest the presence of large oil reserves in the waters of the Senkaku chain. 
 
1971
Taiwan, China, officially claim sovereignty over the islands, calling them "Diaoyu."  
 
1972
Japan regains control of Okinawa and the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands from the United States.  Tokyo agrees to let the U.S. military use Kuba and Taisho as firing ranges for an "indefinite" period.  Japan's defense ministry begins renting Kuba from its owners to ensure U.S. access to the island. Zenji Koga begins the process of selling Kuba, Uotsuri, Minami and Kita to the Kurihara family.  Sale completed in 1988. 
 
2010
September: Japanese coast guard ships collide with a Chinese trawler as they try to chase it from the waters around the islands.  Japanese authorities detain the Chinese captain for two weeks, upsetting China, which responds by suspending political and cultural exchanges and stopping rare earth exports to Japan. 
 
2012
July: Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda says the central government is in talks to buy the islands from the Kurihara family. 
August 15: 14 pro-China activists sail to the islands to assert Chinese sovereignty claims.  Five swim ashore before the Japanese coast guard detains all the activists and deports them. 
August 19: Japanese nationalists land on Uotsuri to assert Japan's sovereignty claim, ignoring Tokyo's warning that the landing is unauthorized. 
Another complication in the U.S. position arises from a 1972 Status of Forces Agreement under which Japan allowed the U.S. military to use two of the disputed islands as bombing ranges for an "indefinite" period.

One of those islands, known in Japan as Kuba, is owned by a Japanese family. Tokyo calls the other one Taisho and says it is state property. Japan says the U.S. military has not used either of them for training since 1978.

Professor Yusuke Anami of Japan's Tohoku University said the Japanese government, though, has been renting Kuba from its owners since 1972 " just so that U.S. Forces in Japan might use it [again] some day."

He said the government faced criticism in 2010 for spending taxpayer money on an unused firing range.

Japan's foreign ministry told VOA that Washington has not expressed any intention to return the two ranges to Japan. It said Tokyo "understands that these facilities and areas are continuously needed" to fulfill the defense treaty.

Frank Gaffney, the head of the Center for Security Policy in Washington, said that maintaining access to the islands is important to the United States, because giving it up could "be perceived as a retreat or sign of weakness by our prospective foes or our friends."

Gaffney also said the islands are valuable because U.S. forces have fewer and fewer areas in which to conduct live-fire exercises. He said U.S. troops also benefit from training in environments similar to those in which they may have to operate.

In response to a VOA question about the firing ranges, a senior U.S. State Department official said "our desire is... to not speculate about defense-related issues with the Senkakus."

Yoshihara at the Naval War College said the United States stopped using the firing ranges in 1978 to avoid destabilizing relations between Japan and China, which were negotiating a peace treaty at the time. He said any military benefits from resuming the exercises are outweighed by the strategic downsides.

Michael Lipin

Michael covers international news for VOA on the web, radio and TV, specializing in the Middle East and East Asia Pacific. Follow him on Twitter @Michael_Lipin

You May Like

Kurdish Party Pushes Political Gamble to Run in Turkey Poll

HDP announces it will run as political party instead of fielding independent candidates in June election, but faces tough 10 percent threshold More

Twitter Targets Islamic State

New research shows suspending Twitter accounts of Islamic State, its supporters has been effective; group, its backers are facing 'significant pressure,' says terrorism expert More

Video Former Sudan 'Lost Boy' Becomes Chess Master in NYC

Majur Juac made the leap from being a refugee in Africa to a master chess champion in US, where he shares his expertise with students More

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
NASA Monitors Earth’s Vital Signs From Spacei
X
Rosanne Skirble
January 27, 2015 5:05 PM
The U.S. space agency, NASA, is wrapping up its busiest 12-month period in more than a decade, with three missions launched in 2014 and two this month, one in early January and the fifth scheduled for January 29. As VOA’s Rosanne Skirble reports, the instruments being lifted into orbit are focused on Earth’s vital life support systems and how they are responding to a warmer planet.
Video

Video NASA Monitors Earth’s Vital Signs From Space

The U.S. space agency, NASA, is wrapping up its busiest 12-month period in more than a decade, with three missions launched in 2014 and two this month, one in early January and the fifth scheduled for January 29. As VOA’s Rosanne Skirble reports, the instruments being lifted into orbit are focused on Earth’s vital life support systems and how they are responding to a warmer planet.
Video

Video Saved By a Mistake - an Auschwitz Survivor's Story

Dagmar Lieblova was 14 when she arrived at Auschwitz in December 1943, along with her entire Czech Jewish family. All of them were to die there, but she was able to leave after several months due to a bureaucratic mix-up which saved her life. Now 85, with three children and six grandchildren, she says she has a feeling of victory. This report by Ahmad Wadiei and Farin Assemi, of RFE/RL's Radio Farda is narrated by RFE’s Raymond Furlong.
Video

Video Weekly Protests in Korea Keep Japanese WWII Atrocities Alive

Every week in Seoul protesters gather in front of the Japanese Embassy to demand an apology and reparations from Tokyo for the thousands of South Korean women who were forced into prostitution during World War II. Although this year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, these protestors have helped keep the issue of comfort women alive and made it difficult for Japan to move beyond its past wartime atrocities. VOA's Brian Padden reports from Seoul.
Video

Video Exercise: New Prescription for Parkinsons Disease

Exercise could be the new prescription for Parkinson's Disease, a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. More than six million people worldwide suffer from Parkinsons and they're traditionally treated with medication and surgery. Shelley Schlender has more.
Video

Video Brussels Shaken as New Greek Leader Challenges Europe’s Austerity Drive

Greece’s youngest-ever prime minister, 40-year-old Alexis Tsipras, was sworn in Monday after his victorious far-left Syriza party entered a coalition with far right rivals. Tsipras says he will restore dignity to Greece by ending spending cuts. So begins a new chapter for the country at the epicenter of Europe’s economic crisis - a change that has sent tremors across the continent, as Henry Ridgwell reports from London.
Video

Video Obama Urges Closer Economic Ties During Historic India Visit

U.S. President Barack Obama says the United States and India must do better to capitalize on untapped potential in their economic relationship - by removing some of the roadblocks to greater trade and investment. As VOA correspondent Aru Pande reports from New Delhi, Obama spoke after participating in India’s Republic Day celebration.
Video

Video White House Grapples With Yemen Counterterrorism Strategy

Reports say the U.S. has carried out a drone strike on suspected militants in Yemen, the first after President Barack Obama offered reassurances the U.S. is continuing its counterterrorism operations in the country. The future of those operations has been in question following the collapse last week of Yemen’s government. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.
Video

Video Worldwide Photo Workshops Empower Youth

Last September, 20 young adults from South Sudan took part in a National Geographic Photo Camp. They are among hundreds of students from around the world who have learned how to use a camera to tell the stories of the people in their communities through the powerful medium of photography. Three camp participants talked about their experiences recently on a visit to Washington. VOA’s Julie Taboh reports.
Video

Video US, Japan Offer Lessons as Eurozone Launches Huge Stimulus

The Euro currency has fallen sharply after the European Central Bank announced a bigger-than-expected $67 billion-a-month quantitative easing program Thursday - commonly seen as a form of printing new money. Henry Ridgwell reports for VOA from London on whether the move might rescue the eurozone economy -- and what lessons have been learned from similar programs around the world.
Video

Video Oil Price Drop Troubles Texas Producers

As oil prices have fallen over the past several months, drilling operations have slowed in some parts of the United States - including Texas, the state that surpasses all others in energy production. The Lone Star State’s energy output has been boosted in recent years by development of resources trapped deep below ground in the Eagle Ford shale deposit, which stretches across south central Texas. As VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from Karnes City, Texas, the drop in oil prices has created concerns,
Video

Video Nigerian Elections Pose Concern of Potential Conflict in 'Middle Belt'

Nigeria’s north-central state of Kaduna has long been the site of fighting between Muslims and Christians as well as between people of different ethnic groups. As the February elections approach, community and religious leaders are making plans they hope will keep the streets calm after results are announced. Chris Stein reports from the state capital, Kaduna.
Video

Video As Viewership Drops, Obama Puts His Message on YouTube

Ratings reports show President Obama’s State of the Union address this week drew the lowest number of viewers for this annual speech in 15 years. White House officials anticipated this, and the president has decided to take a non-traditional approach to getting his message out. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.

Circumventing Censorship

An Internet Primer for Healthy Web Habits

As surveillance and censoring technologies advance, so, too, do new tools for your computer or mobile device that help protect your privacy and break through Internet censorship.
More

All About America

AppleAndroid