News / Europe

Ireland’s Magdalenes Seek Amends for Years of Forced Labor

Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Cecily Hilleary
Ireland’s Labor Party is calling this week for an official apology and compensation for survivors of the so-called Magdalene Laundries, workhouses run by Roman Catholic nuns through most of the past century.
 
For years, the government insisted that the workhouses were privately run by the Church. But last week, the government officially admitted its role in sending thousands of girls and young women into the laundries, where they worked in virtual servitude. 
 
Survivors of the workhouses are not satisfied. They say the government failed to offer the official apology and compensation the women say they deserve. 
 
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
x
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
In June 2011, the advocacy group Justice for Magdalenes (JFM) appealed to the United Nations Committee Against Torture, which subsequently called on Ireland to investigate the issue.  Last week, Ireland issued the findings of its probe, which showed that Irish governments not only admitted girls to the program, but held lucrative contracts with the laundries.  Ireland’s Prime Minister, Enda Kenny, said last Tuesday he is sorry for women forced to live in what he termed a “hostile and far-off environment.”  
 
Mari T. Steed is a JFM co-founder and Committee Director and herself a daughter of a laundry survivor.  She calls Kenny’s statement a “farce.”
 
“Obviously, we were very disappointed.  It was perhaps an expression of Kenny's personal ‘remorse,’ but certainly not a full, formal state apology,” she said.
 
“We spoke to all the survivors and my mum over the past week, and of course they are very disappointed and minced no words about Kenny,” Steed said.  “But they are so trusting in the process and us, they feel we will fight it to the end -- and we will.”

Background

The first of the “Magdalene Asylums” were established in the late 1700s to reform “penitent prostitutes,” who took in washing and sewing to pay for their keep.  The model quickly spread elsewhere in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. By the 19th Century, most of these asylums had closed -- but not in Ireland. 

By the 20th Century, the Irish laundries had become workhouses for unwed mothers, orphans, the mentally disabled, the homeless -- and even girls the clergy judged to at risk of getting into trouble because they were too pretty.  Today, the term “Magdalene” is still associated with prostitution, which Steed says gives survivors a deep sense of shame.  
 
“The societal connotation has been that these institutions were for women who were prostitutes, criminals or insane,” Steed said.  “It was only recently that the public began to learn that there were girls and women in there merely for the "crime" of being pretty, that is, a moral danger to society.”
 
More than 11,000 women passed through 10 institutions between 1922 and 1996 operated by four religious orders: The Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of Refuge; Congregation of the Sisters of Mercy; Religious Sisters of Charity; and Sisters of the Good Shepherd. The last laundry workhouse was shut down in 1996. 
 
The government report estimates there are between 800 and 1,200 survivors are still living.  But because records from two laundries are still missing, Steed believes as many as 2,000 to 3,000 are still alive.

  • High Park Convent Laundry, 2009
  • High Park Convent and Laundry, Dublin, Ireland
  • Good Shepherd Convent and Laundry, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography https://www.facebook.com/AJ.Photography.Cork
  • Interior, Good Shepherd Convent, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography https://www.facebook.com/AJ.Photography.Cork
  • Grave, Margaret Mullen, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Gravesite, former Magdalenes, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Graves, former Magdalenes, Donnybrook Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalene graves at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalenes, 19th Century
  • Magdalen Laundry Scene.  Note girl with shaved head (L).  Heads were often shaved upon entry to laundry or as punishment
  • Magdalenes at work
  • Description of Magdalene Workhouse, "Priests and People in Ireland," Michael J. F. McCarthy, 1903.
  • Magdalen Society Asylum, New York City, 1836
  • Scene from Magdalen Asylum, New York City, 1872.

Life in a workhouse
 

On entrance into a Magdalene Laundry, girls gave up their given names and were  assigned new names or numbers.  Survivors tell stories of long hours washing heavy laundry and ironing.  They were fed little and allowed to bathe only weekly.  If they tried to escape, they were hunted down by police and returned to face solitary confinement, public shaming, whippings or food deprivation.  

 
One such woman was Margaret Bullen — known as No. 322 — who spent 35 years in a Magdalene Laundry.  As a teenager, she became pregnant and gave birth to twin daughters.  The babies were taken from her and adopted out to an Irish family in the U.S.  One of her twins, New York resident Henrietta Thornton, tells VOA her story:
 

“My mother Margaret was born in the mid-1950s in a Dublin mental hospital called St. Brendans at Grangegorman.  Margaret’s own mother remained in the hospital, and she went home to be raised by her father,” Thornton said. 
 
“When she was two years and four months old, she and some of her other siblings were taken away from her father for neglect...into a system called ‘Industrial Schools,’ which were orphanages-slash-reform homes for children.”
 
Hunting rats
 
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret BullenThe only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
x
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
Thornton said even small children were given work to do.  “One of their first jobs in the morning was to kill the rats in the kitchen.  Starting at five years old, she was making breakfast for 70 girls,” Thornton said.
 
When Henrietta and her twin were in their early 20s, they grew curious about their past.  A social worker eventually found their mother.  That’s when the twin learned she was a Magdalene, still living in the convent after decades.  They also found out she was “mentally disabled.” 
 
“When Margaret was 13 her IQ was assessed as 50,” Thornton said. “It seems to me that the assessment concluded she was fit for work but unfit for an education.  The assessment just determined Margaret was eligible to be a slave.”
 
At 16, Margaret was transferred to the Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin, where she would live out her days.
 
“I think there’s a misconception here that these girls were washing a few blouses for the nuns or something like that,” Thornton said.  “It wasn’t nuns’ clothes.  It was a factory situation, where they were doing laundry for prisons, the armed forces and other public and private organizations.  It was really a big business.”
 
Brief Reunion
 
Henrietta and her twin were reunited with their mother in 1995.  They met at a hotel café, where Margaret, then 41 years old, sipped her first cup of coffee.
 
“I learned afterwards that up to when she heard about the possibility of meeting us, she didn’t remember that she had children,” Thornton said.  “She had just blocked it from her mind.”
 
Henrietta Thornton visited Margaret in the High Park convent several times over the next few years.  Margaret died in 2003 of Goodpasture Syndrome, a disease caused by exposure to industrial chemicals.   Thornton says no one called to tell her about her mother’s death; she heard about the “death of the youngest Magdalene” on the radio. 
 
Full Redress
 
Survivors are not only looking for a full apology, but lost wages, pensions and health and housing services for the work they performed for the state -- in some cases, for decades. 
 
The Dáil Eireann -- Ireland’s main house of parliament -- will debate the issue this week. 
 
Only one religious order, the Sisters of Charity, has apologized “unreservedly to any woman who experienced hurt” while in their care. The other three orders have issued statements of regret on their websites.
 
VOA requested an interview with the Irish Catholic Bishops Conference, which did not respond.

You May Like

Video US, Japan Offer Lessons as Eurozone Launches Huge Stimulus

Euro falls after European Central Bank announces a bigger-than-expected $67 billion-a-month quantitative easing program More

Saudi King’s Death Clears Succession Route

Prince Mohammed Bin Nayef is Saudi Arabia's New Crown Prince-in-waiting More

Cloud Hangs Over US Counterterrorism Efforts in Yemen

Sources say resignations of Yemen's president, government has left US anti-terror operations 'paralyzed,' yet an American military 'footprint' remains More

This forum has been closed.
Comment Sorting
Comments
     
by: Richie from: Dublin
February 13, 2013 5:46 PM
The report did not say that the laundries had "lucrative" contracts with the state. The state for sure did use the services of the laundries but in fact the report concluded that they were break even or subsistance based. One of the laundries ran a deficit in 2011 terms of €200k a year before bequests and donations. They were not profitable.


by: Rob Swift from: Great Britain
February 13, 2013 1:55 PM
Dating from Herod having the children murdered in order to subvert the historical process there has been widespread persecution of the chosen ones. (Recent export from England to Australia etc of illegitimate children). Now we have this reported from Ireland. (Thanks to VOA the voice of freedom)
The antichrist brigade (The masonic movement) has already lost it's power base and is plunging into materialism because it has nowhere else to run. Places have been reserved for all masons. When they are called they will all come.

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Worldwide Photo Workshops Empower Youthi
X
Julie Taboh
January 23, 2015 11:08 PM
Last September, 20 young adults from South Sudan took part in a National Geographic Photo Camp. They are among hundreds of students from around the world who have learned how to use a camera to tell the stories of the people in their communities through the powerful medium of photography. Three camp participants talked about their experiences recently on a visit to Washington. VOA’s Julie Taboh reports.
Video

Video Worldwide Photo Workshops Empower Youth

Last September, 20 young adults from South Sudan took part in a National Geographic Photo Camp. They are among hundreds of students from around the world who have learned how to use a camera to tell the stories of the people in their communities through the powerful medium of photography. Three camp participants talked about their experiences recently on a visit to Washington. VOA’s Julie Taboh reports.
Video

Video US, Japan Offer Lessons as Eurozone Launches Huge Stimulus

The Euro currency has fallen sharply after the European Central Bank announced a bigger-than-expected $67 billion-a-month quantitative easing program Thursday - commonly seen as a form of printing new money. Henry Ridgwell reports for VOA from London on whether the move might rescue the eurozone economy -- and what lessons have been learned from similar programs around the world.
Video

Video Nigerian Elections Pose Concern of Potential Conflict in 'Middle Belt'

Nigeria’s north-central state of Kaduna has long been the site of fighting between Muslims and Christians as well as between people of different ethnic groups. As the February elections approach, community and religious leaders are making plans they hope will keep the streets calm after results are announced. Chris Stein reports from the state capital, Kaduna.
Video

Video As Viewership Drops, Obama Puts His Message on YouTube

Ratings reports show President Obama’s State of the Union address this week drew the lowest number of viewers for this annual speech in 15 years. White House officials anticipated this, and the president has decided to take a non-traditional approach to getting his message out. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.
Video

Video S. Korean Businesses Want to End Trade Restrictions With North

Business leaders in South Korea are calling for President Park Geun-hye to ease trade restrictions with North Korea that were put in place in 2010 after the sinking of a South Korean warship.Pro-business groups argue that expanding trade and investment is not only good for business, it is also good for long-term regional peace and security. VOA’s Brian Padden reports.
Video

Video US Marching Bands Grow Into a Show of Their Own

The 2014 Super Bowl halftime show was the most-watched in history - attracting an estimated 115 million viewers. That event featured pop star Bruno Mars. But the halftime show tradition started with marching bands, which still dominate the entertainment at U.S. high school and college American football games. But as Enming Liu reports in this story narrated by Adrianna Zhang, marching bands have grown into a show of their own.
Video

Video Secular, Religious Kurds Face Off in Southeast Turkey

Turkey’s predominantly Kurdish southeast has been rocked by violence between religious and secular Kurds. Dorian Jones reports on the reasons behind the stand-off from the region's main city of Diyarbakir, which suffered the bloodiest fighting.
Video

Video Kenya: Misuse of Antibiotics Leading to Resistance by Immune System

In Kenya, the rise of drug resistant bacteria could reverse the gains made by medical science over diseases that were once treatable. Kenyans could be at risk of fatalities as a result if the power in antibiotics is not preserved. Lenny Ruvaga has more on the story from Nairobi.
Video

Video Solar-Powered Plane Getting Ready to Circumnavigate Globe

Pilots of the solar plane that already set records flying without a drop of fuel are close to making their first attempt to fly the craft around the globe. They plan to do it in 25 flying days over a five month period. VOA’s George Putic reports.
Video

Video How Experts Decide Ethiopia Has the Best Coffee

Ethiopia’s coffee has been ranked as the best in the world by an international group of coffee connoisseurs. Not surprisingly, coffee is a top export for the country. But at home it is a source of pride. Marthe van der Wolf in Addis Ababa decided to find out what makes the bean and brew so special and how experts make their determinations.
Video

Video Yazidi Refugees at Center of Political Fight Between Turkey, Kurds

The treatment of thousands of Yazidis refugees who fled to Turkey to escape attacks by Islamic State militants has become the center of a dispute between the Turkish government and the country's pro-Kurdish movement. VOA's Dorian Jones reports.
Video

Video World’s Richest 1% Forecast to Own More Than Half of Global Wealth

The combined wealth of the world's richest 1 percent will overtake that of the remaining 99 percent at some point in 2016, according to the anti-poverty charity Oxfam. Campaigners are demanding that policymakers take action to address the widening gap between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’, as Henry Ridgwell reports for VOA from London.

Circumventing Censorship

An Internet Primer for Healthy Web Habits

As surveillance and censoring technologies advance, so, too, do new tools for your computer or mobile device that help protect your privacy and break through Internet censorship.
More

All About America

AppleAndroid