News / Europe

Ireland’s Magdalenes Seek Amends for Years of Forced Labor

Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Cecily Hilleary
Ireland’s Labor Party is calling this week for an official apology and compensation for survivors of the so-called Magdalene Laundries, workhouses run by Roman Catholic nuns through most of the past century.
For years, the government insisted that the workhouses were privately run by the Church. But last week, the government officially admitted its role in sending thousands of girls and young women into the laundries, where they worked in virtual servitude. 
Survivors of the workhouses are not satisfied. They say the government failed to offer the official apology and compensation the women say they deserve. 
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
In June 2011, the advocacy group Justice for Magdalenes (JFM) appealed to the United Nations Committee Against Torture, which subsequently called on Ireland to investigate the issue.  Last week, Ireland issued the findings of its probe, which showed that Irish governments not only admitted girls to the program, but held lucrative contracts with the laundries.  Ireland’s Prime Minister, Enda Kenny, said last Tuesday he is sorry for women forced to live in what he termed a “hostile and far-off environment.”  
Mari T. Steed is a JFM co-founder and Committee Director and herself a daughter of a laundry survivor.  She calls Kenny’s statement a “farce.”
“Obviously, we were very disappointed.  It was perhaps an expression of Kenny's personal ‘remorse,’ but certainly not a full, formal state apology,” she said.
“We spoke to all the survivors and my mum over the past week, and of course they are very disappointed and minced no words about Kenny,” Steed said.  “But they are so trusting in the process and us, they feel we will fight it to the end -- and we will.”


The first of the “Magdalene Asylums” were established in the late 1700s to reform “penitent prostitutes,” who took in washing and sewing to pay for their keep.  The model quickly spread elsewhere in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. By the 19th Century, most of these asylums had closed -- but not in Ireland. 

By the 20th Century, the Irish laundries had become workhouses for unwed mothers, orphans, the mentally disabled, the homeless -- and even girls the clergy judged to at risk of getting into trouble because they were too pretty.  Today, the term “Magdalene” is still associated with prostitution, which Steed says gives survivors a deep sense of shame.  
“The societal connotation has been that these institutions were for women who were prostitutes, criminals or insane,” Steed said.  “It was only recently that the public began to learn that there were girls and women in there merely for the "crime" of being pretty, that is, a moral danger to society.”
More than 11,000 women passed through 10 institutions between 1922 and 1996 operated by four religious orders: The Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of Refuge; Congregation of the Sisters of Mercy; Religious Sisters of Charity; and Sisters of the Good Shepherd. The last laundry workhouse was shut down in 1996. 
The government report estimates there are between 800 and 1,200 survivors are still living.  But because records from two laundries are still missing, Steed believes as many as 2,000 to 3,000 are still alive.

  • High Park Convent Laundry, 2009
  • High Park Convent and Laundry, Dublin, Ireland
  • Good Shepherd Convent and Laundry, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography
  • Interior, Good Shepherd Convent, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography
  • Grave, Margaret Mullen, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Gravesite, former Magdalenes, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Graves, former Magdalenes, Donnybrook Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalene graves at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalenes, 19th Century
  • Magdalen Laundry Scene.  Note girl with shaved head (L).  Heads were often shaved upon entry to laundry or as punishment
  • Magdalenes at work
  • Description of Magdalene Workhouse, "Priests and People in Ireland," Michael J. F. McCarthy, 1903.
  • Magdalen Society Asylum, New York City, 1836
  • Scene from Magdalen Asylum, New York City, 1872.

Life in a workhouse

On entrance into a Magdalene Laundry, girls gave up their given names and were  assigned new names or numbers.  Survivors tell stories of long hours washing heavy laundry and ironing.  They were fed little and allowed to bathe only weekly.  If they tried to escape, they were hunted down by police and returned to face solitary confinement, public shaming, whippings or food deprivation.  

One such woman was Margaret Bullen — known as No. 322 — who spent 35 years in a Magdalene Laundry.  As a teenager, she became pregnant and gave birth to twin daughters.  The babies were taken from her and adopted out to an Irish family in the U.S.  One of her twins, New York resident Henrietta Thornton, tells VOA her story:

“My mother Margaret was born in the mid-1950s in a Dublin mental hospital called St. Brendans at Grangegorman.  Margaret’s own mother remained in the hospital, and she went home to be raised by her father,” Thornton said. 
“When she was two years and four months old, she and some of her other siblings were taken away from her father for neglect...into a system called ‘Industrial Schools,’ which were orphanages-slash-reform homes for children.”
Hunting rats
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret BullenThe only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
Thornton said even small children were given work to do.  “One of their first jobs in the morning was to kill the rats in the kitchen.  Starting at five years old, she was making breakfast for 70 girls,” Thornton said.
When Henrietta and her twin were in their early 20s, they grew curious about their past.  A social worker eventually found their mother.  That’s when the twin learned she was a Magdalene, still living in the convent after decades.  They also found out she was “mentally disabled.” 
“When Margaret was 13 her IQ was assessed as 50,” Thornton said. “It seems to me that the assessment concluded she was fit for work but unfit for an education.  The assessment just determined Margaret was eligible to be a slave.”
At 16, Margaret was transferred to the Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin, where she would live out her days.
“I think there’s a misconception here that these girls were washing a few blouses for the nuns or something like that,” Thornton said.  “It wasn’t nuns’ clothes.  It was a factory situation, where they were doing laundry for prisons, the armed forces and other public and private organizations.  It was really a big business.”
Brief Reunion
Henrietta and her twin were reunited with their mother in 1995.  They met at a hotel café, where Margaret, then 41 years old, sipped her first cup of coffee.
“I learned afterwards that up to when she heard about the possibility of meeting us, she didn’t remember that she had children,” Thornton said.  “She had just blocked it from her mind.”
Henrietta Thornton visited Margaret in the High Park convent several times over the next few years.  Margaret died in 2003 of Goodpasture Syndrome, a disease caused by exposure to industrial chemicals.   Thornton says no one called to tell her about her mother’s death; she heard about the “death of the youngest Magdalene” on the radio. 
Full Redress
Survivors are not only looking for a full apology, but lost wages, pensions and health and housing services for the work they performed for the state -- in some cases, for decades. 
The Dáil Eireann -- Ireland’s main house of parliament -- will debate the issue this week. 
Only one religious order, the Sisters of Charity, has apologized “unreservedly to any woman who experienced hurt” while in their care. The other three orders have issued statements of regret on their websites.
VOA requested an interview with the Irish Catholic Bishops Conference, which did not respond.

You May Like

Video Russia’s Syrian Escalation Tests Obama’s Crisis Response

Critics once again question whether president has been slow to act on Syrian conflict, thus creating opening for powers like Russia More

Ancient African DNA Shows Mass Migration Back Into Africa

First genetic analysis of ancient human remains in Africa suggests massive migration from north around time of Egyptian empire More

NASA: Pluto Has Blue Sky

New photos also reveal the presence of water ice More

This forum has been closed.
Comment Sorting
by: Richie from: Dublin
February 13, 2013 5:46 PM
The report did not say that the laundries had "lucrative" contracts with the state. The state for sure did use the services of the laundries but in fact the report concluded that they were break even or subsistance based. One of the laundries ran a deficit in 2011 terms of €200k a year before bequests and donations. They were not profitable.

by: Rob Swift from: Great Britain
February 13, 2013 1:55 PM
Dating from Herod having the children murdered in order to subvert the historical process there has been widespread persecution of the chosen ones. (Recent export from England to Australia etc of illegitimate children). Now we have this reported from Ireland. (Thanks to VOA the voice of freedom)
The antichrist brigade (The masonic movement) has already lost it's power base and is plunging into materialism because it has nowhere else to run. Places have been reserved for all masons. When they are called they will all come.

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Hungary Criticized for Handling of Refugeesi
Henry Ridgwell
October 08, 2015 8:02 PM
Amnesty International has accused Hungary of breaking multiple international and European human rights laws in its handling of the refugee crisis. As Henry Ridgwell reports, thousands of migrants and refugees continue to travel through the Balkans to Hungary every day.

Video Hungary Criticized for Handling of Refugees

Amnesty International has accused Hungary of breaking multiple international and European human rights laws in its handling of the refugee crisis. As Henry Ridgwell reports, thousands of migrants and refugees continue to travel through the Balkans to Hungary every day.

Video Iraqi-Kurdish Teachers Vow to Continue Protest

Sixteen people were injured when police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse teachers and other public employees who took to the streets in Iraq’s Kurdish north, demanding their salaries from the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG). VOA’s Dilshad Anwar, in Sulaimaniya, caught up with protesting teachers who say they have not been paid for three months. Parke Brewer narrates his report.

Video Syrian Village Community Faces Double Displacement in Lebanon

Driven by war from their village in southwestern Syria, a group of families found shelter in Lebanon, resettling en masse in a half-built university to form one of the biggest settlements of its kind in Lebanon. Three years later, however, they now face being kicked out and dispersed in a country where finding shelter as a refugee can be especially tough. John Owens has more for VOA from the city of Saida, also known as Sidon.

Video Bat Colony: Unusual Tourist Attraction in Texas

The action hero Batman might be everyone’s favorite but real bats hardly get that kind of adoration. Put more than a million of these creatures of the night together and it only evokes images of horror. Sarah Zaman visited the largest urban bat colony in North America to see just how well bat and human get along with each other.

Video Device Shows Promise of Stopping Motion Sickness

It’s a sickening feeling — the dizziness, nausea and vomiting that comes with motion sickness. But a device now being developed could stop motion sickness by suppressing certain signals in the brain. VOA’s Deborah Block reports.

Video Making a Mint

While apples, corn, and cranberries top the list of fall produce in the US, it’s also the time to harvest gum, candy, and toothpaste—or at least the oil that makes them minty fresh. Erika Celeste reports from South Bend, Indiana on the mint harvest.

Video Activists Decry Lagos Slum Demolition

Acting on a court order, authorities in Nigeria demolished a slum last month in the commercial capital, Lagos. But human rights activists say the order was illegal, and the community was razed to make way for a government housing project. Chris Stein has more from Lagos.

Video TPP Agreed, But Faces Stiff Opposition

President Barack Obama promoted the Trans-Pacific Partnership on Tuesday, one day after 12 Pacific Rim nations reached the free trade deal in Atlanta. The controversial pact that would involve about 40 percent of global trade still needs approval by lawmakers in respective countries. Zlatica Hoke reports Obama is facing strong opposition to the deal, including from members of his own party.

Video Ukranian Artist Portrays Putin in an Unusual Way

As Russian President Vladimir Putin was addressing the United Nations in New York last month, he was also being featured in an art exhibition in Washington. It’s not a flattering exhibit. It’s done by a Ukrainian artist in a unique medium. And its creator says it’s not only a work of art - it’s a political statement. VOA’s Tetiana Kharchenko has more.

Video Nano-tech Filter Cleans Dirty Water

Access to clean water is a problem for hundreds of millions of people around the world. Now, a scientist and chemical engineer in Tanzania (in East Africa) is working to change that by creating an innovative water filter that makes dirty water safe. VOA’s Deborah Block has the story.

Video Demand Rising for Organic Produce in Cambodia

In Cambodia, where rice has long been the main cash crop, farmers are being encouraged to turn to vegetables to satisfy the growing demand for locally produced organic farm products. Daniel de Carteret has more from Phnom Penh.

Video Botanists Grow Furniture, with Pruning Shears

For something a bit out of the ordinary to furnish your home, why not consider wooden chairs, crafted by nature, with a little help from some British botanists with an eye for design. VOA’s Jessica Berman reports.

VOA Blogs