News / Europe

Ireland’s Magdalenes Seek Amends for Years of Forced Labor

Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Mary Smyth who was born in a "Magdalene Laundry", reacts during a "Magdalene Survivors Together" news conference in Dublin, February 5, 2013.
Cecily Hilleary
Ireland’s Labor Party is calling this week for an official apology and compensation for survivors of the so-called Magdalene Laundries, workhouses run by Roman Catholic nuns through most of the past century.
 
For years, the government insisted that the workhouses were privately run by the Church. But last week, the government officially admitted its role in sending thousands of girls and young women into the laundries, where they worked in virtual servitude. 
 
Survivors of the workhouses are not satisfied. They say the government failed to offer the official apology and compensation the women say they deserve. 
 
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
x
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny speaking at Harvard University, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2012
In June 2011, the advocacy group Justice for Magdalenes (JFM) appealed to the United Nations Committee Against Torture, which subsequently called on Ireland to investigate the issue.  Last week, Ireland issued the findings of its probe, which showed that Irish governments not only admitted girls to the program, but held lucrative contracts with the laundries.  Ireland’s Prime Minister, Enda Kenny, said last Tuesday he is sorry for women forced to live in what he termed a “hostile and far-off environment.”  
 
Mari T. Steed is a JFM co-founder and Committee Director and herself a daughter of a laundry survivor.  She calls Kenny’s statement a “farce.”
 
“Obviously, we were very disappointed.  It was perhaps an expression of Kenny's personal ‘remorse,’ but certainly not a full, formal state apology,” she said.
 
“We spoke to all the survivors and my mum over the past week, and of course they are very disappointed and minced no words about Kenny,” Steed said.  “But they are so trusting in the process and us, they feel we will fight it to the end -- and we will.”

Background

The first of the “Magdalene Asylums” were established in the late 1700s to reform “penitent prostitutes,” who took in washing and sewing to pay for their keep.  The model quickly spread elsewhere in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. By the 19th Century, most of these asylums had closed -- but not in Ireland. 

By the 20th Century, the Irish laundries had become workhouses for unwed mothers, orphans, the mentally disabled, the homeless -- and even girls the clergy judged to at risk of getting into trouble because they were too pretty.  Today, the term “Magdalene” is still associated with prostitution, which Steed says gives survivors a deep sense of shame.  
 
“The societal connotation has been that these institutions were for women who were prostitutes, criminals or insane,” Steed said.  “It was only recently that the public began to learn that there were girls and women in there merely for the "crime" of being pretty, that is, a moral danger to society.”
 
More than 11,000 women passed through 10 institutions between 1922 and 1996 operated by four religious orders: The Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of Refuge; Congregation of the Sisters of Mercy; Religious Sisters of Charity; and Sisters of the Good Shepherd. The last laundry workhouse was shut down in 1996. 
 
The government report estimates there are between 800 and 1,200 survivors are still living.  But because records from two laundries are still missing, Steed believes as many as 2,000 to 3,000 are still alive.

  • High Park Convent Laundry, 2009
  • High Park Convent and Laundry, Dublin, Ireland
  • Good Shepherd Convent and Laundry, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography https://www.facebook.com/AJ.Photography.Cork
  • Interior, Good Shepherd Convent, Cork, Ireland, Alwyn Jennings/AJ Photography https://www.facebook.com/AJ.Photography.Cork
  • Grave, Margaret Mullen, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Gravesite, former Magdalenes, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Graves, former Magdalenes, Donnybrook Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalene graves at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland
  • Magdalenes, 19th Century
  • Magdalen Laundry Scene.  Note girl with shaved head (L).  Heads were often shaved upon entry to laundry or as punishment
  • Magdalenes at work
  • Description of Magdalene Workhouse, "Priests and People in Ireland," Michael J. F. McCarthy, 1903.
  • Magdalen Society Asylum, New York City, 1836
  • Scene from Magdalen Asylum, New York City, 1872.

Life in a workhouse
 

On entrance into a Magdalene Laundry, girls gave up their given names and were  assigned new names or numbers.  Survivors tell stories of long hours washing heavy laundry and ironing.  They were fed little and allowed to bathe only weekly.  If they tried to escape, they were hunted down by police and returned to face solitary confinement, public shaming, whippings or food deprivation.  

 
One such woman was Margaret Bullen — known as No. 322 — who spent 35 years in a Magdalene Laundry.  As a teenager, she became pregnant and gave birth to twin daughters.  The babies were taken from her and adopted out to an Irish family in the U.S.  One of her twins, New York resident Henrietta Thornton, tells VOA her story:
 

“My mother Margaret was born in the mid-1950s in a Dublin mental hospital called St. Brendans at Grangegorman.  Margaret’s own mother remained in the hospital, and she went home to be raised by her father,” Thornton said. 
 
“When she was two years and four months old, she and some of her other siblings were taken away from her father for neglect...into a system called ‘Industrial Schools,’ which were orphanages-slash-reform homes for children.”
 
Hunting rats
 
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret BullenThe only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
x
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
The only known image of Magdalene Laundry survivor, Margaret Bullen
Thornton said even small children were given work to do.  “One of their first jobs in the morning was to kill the rats in the kitchen.  Starting at five years old, she was making breakfast for 70 girls,” Thornton said.
 
When Henrietta and her twin were in their early 20s, they grew curious about their past.  A social worker eventually found their mother.  That’s when the twin learned she was a Magdalene, still living in the convent after decades.  They also found out she was “mentally disabled.” 
 
“When Margaret was 13 her IQ was assessed as 50,” Thornton said. “It seems to me that the assessment concluded she was fit for work but unfit for an education.  The assessment just determined Margaret was eligible to be a slave.”
 
At 16, Margaret was transferred to the Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin, where she would live out her days.
 
“I think there’s a misconception here that these girls were washing a few blouses for the nuns or something like that,” Thornton said.  “It wasn’t nuns’ clothes.  It was a factory situation, where they were doing laundry for prisons, the armed forces and other public and private organizations.  It was really a big business.”
 
Brief Reunion
 
Henrietta and her twin were reunited with their mother in 1995.  They met at a hotel café, where Margaret, then 41 years old, sipped her first cup of coffee.
 
“I learned afterwards that up to when she heard about the possibility of meeting us, she didn’t remember that she had children,” Thornton said.  “She had just blocked it from her mind.”
 
Henrietta Thornton visited Margaret in the High Park convent several times over the next few years.  Margaret died in 2003 of Goodpasture Syndrome, a disease caused by exposure to industrial chemicals.   Thornton says no one called to tell her about her mother’s death; she heard about the “death of the youngest Magdalene” on the radio. 
 
Full Redress
 
Survivors are not only looking for a full apology, but lost wages, pensions and health and housing services for the work they performed for the state -- in some cases, for decades. 
 
The Dáil Eireann -- Ireland’s main house of parliament -- will debate the issue this week. 
 
Only one religious order, the Sisters of Charity, has apologized “unreservedly to any woman who experienced hurt” while in their care. The other three orders have issued statements of regret on their websites.
 
VOA requested an interview with the Irish Catholic Bishops Conference, which did not respond.

You May Like

Multimedia US Nurse ‘Cured of Ebola,’ NIH Says

Nina Pham, Texas nurse who treated first Ebola patient in US, received no experimental drugs; WHO expects vaccine surge in 2015 More

Video Islamic State Militants Encroach on Baghdad

Iraqi capital not under ‘imminent threat,’ US military says, amid worries about foothold More

Video Hong Kong Protesters Focus on Holding Volatile Mong Kok

Activists say holding Mong Kok is key to their movement's success, despite confrontations with angry residents and police More

This forum has been closed.
Comment Sorting
Comments
     
by: Richie from: Dublin
February 13, 2013 5:46 PM
The report did not say that the laundries had "lucrative" contracts with the state. The state for sure did use the services of the laundries but in fact the report concluded that they were break even or subsistance based. One of the laundries ran a deficit in 2011 terms of €200k a year before bequests and donations. They were not profitable.


by: Rob Swift from: Great Britain
February 13, 2013 1:55 PM
Dating from Herod having the children murdered in order to subvert the historical process there has been widespread persecution of the chosen ones. (Recent export from England to Australia etc of illegitimate children). Now we have this reported from Ireland. (Thanks to VOA the voice of freedom)
The antichrist brigade (The masonic movement) has already lost it's power base and is plunging into materialism because it has nowhere else to run. Places have been reserved for all masons. When they are called they will all come.

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
After Decades of Pressure, Luxembourg Drops Bank Secrecy Rulesi
X
October 21, 2014 12:20 AM
European Union finance ministers have reached a breakthrough agreement that will make it more difficult for tax cheats to hide their money. The new legislation, which had been blocked for years by countries with a reputation as tax havens, was approved last week after Luxembourg and Austria agreed to lift their vetoes. But as Mil Arcega reports, it doesn’t mean tax cheats have run out of places to keep their money hidden.
Video

Video After Decades of Pressure, Luxembourg Drops Bank Secrecy Rules

European Union finance ministers have reached a breakthrough agreement that will make it more difficult for tax cheats to hide their money. The new legislation, which had been blocked for years by countries with a reputation as tax havens, was approved last week after Luxembourg and Austria agreed to lift their vetoes. But as Mil Arcega reports, it doesn’t mean tax cheats have run out of places to keep their money hidden.
Video

Video Kobani Refugees Welcome, Turkey Criticizes, US Airdrop

Residents of Kobani in northern Syria have welcomed the airdrop of weapons, ammunition and medicine to Kurdish militia who are resisting the seizure of their city by Islamic State militants. The Turkish government, however, has criticized the operation. VOA’s Scott Bobb reports from southeastern Turkey, across the border from Kobani.
Video

Video China Political Meeting Seeks to Improve Rule of Law

China’s communist leaders will host a top level political meeting this week, called the Fourth Plenum, and for the first time in the party’s history, rule of law will be a key item on the agenda. Analysts and Chinese media reports say the meetings could see the approval of long-awaited measures aimed at giving courts more independence and include steps to enhance an already aggressive and high-reaching anti-corruption drive. VOA’s Bill Ide has more from Beijing.
Video

Video US ‘Death Cafes’ Put Focus on the Finale

In contemporary America, death usually is a topic to be avoided. But the growing “death café” movement encourages people to discuss their fears and desires about their final moments. VOA’s Jerome Socolovsky reports.
Video

Video Ebola Orphanage Opens in Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone's first Ebola orphanage has opened in the Kailahun district. Hundreds of children orphaned since the beginning of the Ebola outbreak face stigma and rejection with nobody to care for them. Adam Bailes reports for VOA about a new interim care center that's aimed at helping the growing number of children affected by Ebola.
Video

Video Young Nairobi Tech Innovator on 'Track' in Security Business

A 24-year-old technology innovator in Nairobi has invented a tracking device that monitors and secures cars. He has also come up with what he claims is the most robust audio-visual surveillance system yet. As Lenny Ruvaga reports from the Kenyan capital, his innovations are offering alternative security solutions.
Video

Video Latinas Converting to Islam for Identity, Structure

Latinos are one of the fastest growing groups in the Muslim religion. According to the Pew Research Center, about 6 percent of American Muslims are Latino. And a little more than half of new converts are female. VOA’s Carolyn Presutti travelled to Miami, Florida -- where two out of every three residents is Hispanic -- to learn more.
Video

Video Exclusive: American Joins Kurds' Anti-IS Fight

The United States and other Western nations have expressed alarm about their citizens joining Islamic State forces in Syria and Iraq. In a rare counterpoint to the phenomenon, an American has taken up arms with the militants' Syrian Kurdish opponents. Elizabeth Arrott has more in this exclusive profile by VOA Kurdish reporter Zana Omer in Ras al Ayn, Syria.
Video

Video South Korea Confronts Violence Within Military Ranks

Every able-bodied South Korean male between 18 and 35 must serve for 21 to 36 months in the country’s armed forces, depending upon the specific branch. For many, service is a rite of passage to manhood. But there are growing concerns that bullying and violence come along with the tradition. Reporter Jason Strother has more from Seoul.
Video

Video North Carolina Emerges as Key Election Battleground

U.S. congressional midterm elections will be held on November 4th and most political analysts give Republicans an excellent chance to win a majority in the U.S. Senate, which Democrats now control. So what are the issues driving voters in this congressional election year? VOA National Correspondent Jim Malone traveled to North Carolina, one of the most politically competitive states in the country, to find out.
Video

Video Comanche People Maintain Pride in Their Heritage

The Comanche (Indian nation) once were called the “Lords of the Plains,” with an empire that included half the land area of current day Texas, large parts of Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas and Colorado.The fierceness and battle prowess of these warriors on horseback delayed the settlement of most of West Texas for four decades. VOA’s Greg Flakus reports from Lawton, Oklahoma, that while their warrior days are over, the 15,000 members of the Comanche Nation remain a proud people.
Video

Video Turkey Campus Attacks Raise Islamic Radicalization Fears

Concerns are growing in Turkey of Islamic radicalization at some universities, after clashes between supporters of the jihadist group Islamic State (IS) or ISIS, and those opposed to the extremists. Pro-jihadist literature is on sale openly on the streets of Istanbul. Critics accuse the government of turning a blind eye to radicalism at home, while Kurds accuse the president of supporting IS - a charge strongly denied. Henry Ridgwell reports from London.

All About America

AppleAndroid