News / Science & Technology

    MESSENGER Spacecraft Will Be First to Orbit Planet Mercury

    An artist's concept shows the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury
    An artist's concept shows the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury
    Jessica Berman

    The U.S. space probe MESSENGER is poised to enter orbit around Mercury early Friday, Universal time, capping a nearly seven-year journey to the solar system’s innermost planet.  Scientists with the U.S. space agency, NASA, hope the orbiting probe will greatly expand our knowledge of Mercury, and provide news clues to the origins of Earth, as well.  

    MESSENGER’s orbital rendezvous with Mercury is the final stage of a breathtaking journey that has taken it billions of kilometers through the inner solar system, including half dozen photographic fly-bys of Earth, Venus and Mercury itself for gravitational assists.

    "Those were all hor d’oeuvres for the banquet we’re about to enjoy," said Sean Solomon of the Carnegie Institution of Washington D.C. , who is the MESSENGER mission’s principal investigator.  "Once MESSENGER is in orbit around Mercury, it will be the first spacecraft to do so, we will have the first global observatory at the innermost planet of the solar system."

    The last close-up data on Mercury was collected by NASA’s Mariner 10 in a fly-by mission in the mid-1970s.

    Fifteen minutes before insertion into Mercury orbit, MESSENGER will begin firing its main thruster engine, burning off one-third of its propellant.   That burn will slow the spacecraft down by 862 meters per second for the orbit insertion maneuver.

    Scientists say it will be an hour before they are able to confirm whether MESSENGER is securely in orbit around Mercury.

    MESSENGER will circle the tiny planet, roughly the size of Earth’s Moon, every 12 hours, traveling over the planet’s polar regions just 200 kilometers above the rocky surface.

    MESSENGER will be a mere 46 million kilometers from the Sun.  Built to withstand the blistering heat, the spacecraft is carrying seven scientific instruments that mission investigator Solomon hopes will help answer some intriguing questions about the solar system’s inner-most planet.

    For example, Solomon says there appears to be ice in the floors of impact craters at Mercury’s poles, which are in permanent shadow.

    "That’s pretty astonishing because at the equator of Mercury, the temperature varies between day and night by 600 degrees centigrade," he said. "So, the notion that there might be permanent repositories of water ice at the poles of Mercury seems to fly in the face of the fact that this is a planet closest to the Sun and has extraordinarily high daytime temperatures."

    Solomon says MESSENGER won’t begin returning any images of Mercury until April.

    MESSENGER’s orbital mission is scheduled to last one year.  But Solomon is hopeful there will be enough fuel to extend its observations of Mercury into a second year.

    You May Like

    Video Russia's Expat Community Shrinking

    Russia's troubled economy, tensions with West have led hundreds of thousands of foreigners to leave for better opportunities

    Accelerating the Push Against Islamic State: What Will Work?

    Experts stress need to step up military action, address root causes of Muslims' disaffection, counter IS social media messages in a massive way

    Experts: N. Korean Abductions Sought to Halt Brain Drain

    Pyongyang abducted about 3,800 South Koreans and more than a dozen Japanese nationals in late 1970s

    This forum has been closed.
    Comments
         
    There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

    Featured Videos

    Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
    German Artists to Memorialize Refugees With Life Jacket Exhibiti
    X
    Hamada Elsaram
    February 05, 2016 4:30 PM
    Sold in every kind of shop in some Turkish port towns, life jackets have become a symbol of the refugee crisis that brought a million people to Europe in 2015.  On the shores of Lesbos, Greece, German artists collect discarded life jackets as they prepare an art installation they plan to display in Germany.  For VOA, Hamada Elrasam has this report from Lesbos, Greece.
    Video

    Video German Artists to Memorialize Refugees With Life Jacket Exhibit

    Sold in every kind of shop in some Turkish port towns, life jackets have become a symbol of the refugee crisis that brought a million people to Europe in 2015.  On the shores of Lesbos, Greece, German artists collect discarded life jackets as they prepare an art installation they plan to display in Germany.  For VOA, Hamada Elrasam has this report from Lesbos, Greece.
    Video

    Video E-readers Help Ease Africa's Book Shortage

    Millions of people in Africa can't read, and there's a chronic shortage of books. A non-profit organization called Worldreader is trying to help change all that one e-reader at a time. VOA’s Deborah Block tells us about a girls' school in Nairobi, Kenya where Worldreader is making a difference.
    Video

    Video Genius Lets World Share Its Knowledge

    Inspired by crowdsourcing companies like Wikipedia, Genius allows anyone to edit anything on the web, using its web annotation tool
    Video

    Video Former Drug CEO Martin Shkreli Angers US Lawmakers

    A former U.S. pharmaceutical business executive has angered lawmakers by refusing to explain why he raised the price of a life-saving pill by 5,000 percent. Martin Shkreli was removed from a congressional hearing on Thursday after citing his Fifth Amendment right to stay silent. Zlatica Hoke has more.
    Video

    Video Super Bowl TV Commercials are Super Business for Advertisers

    The Super Bowl, the championship clash between the two top teams in American Football, is the most-watched sporting event of the year, and advertisers are lining up and paying big bucks to get their commercials on the air. In fact, the TV commercials during the Super Bowl have become one of the most anticipated and popular features of the event. VOA's Brian Allen has a sneak peek of what you can expect to see when the big game goes to commercial break, and the real entertainment begins.
    Video

    Video In Philippines, Mixed Feelings About Greater US Military Presence

    In the Philippines, some who will be directly affected by a recent Supreme Court decision clearing the way for more United States troop visits are having mixed reactions.  The increased rotations come at a time when the Philippines is trying to build up its military in the face of growing maritime assertiveness from China.  From Bahile, Palawan on the coast of the South China Sea, Simone Orendain has this story.
    Video

    Video Microcephaly's Connection to Zika: Guilty Until Proven Innocent

    The Zika virus rarely causes problems for the people who get it, but it seems to be having a devastating impact on babies whose mothers are infected with Zika. VOA's Carol Pearson has more.
    Video

    Video Solar Innovation Provides Cheap, Clean Energy to Kenya Residents

    In Kenya, a company called M-Kopa Solar is providing clean energy to more than 300,000 homes across East Africa by allowing customers to "pay-as-you-go" via their cell phones. As Lenny Ruvaga reports from Kangemi, customers pay a small deposit for a solar unit and then pay less than a dollar a day to get clean energy to light up their homes or businesses.
    Video

    Video Stunning Artworks Attract Record Crowds, Thanks to Social Media

    A new exhibit at the oldest art museum in America is shattering attendance records. Thousands of visitors are lining up to see nine giant works of art that have gotten a much-deserved shot of viral marketing. The 150-year-old Smithsonian American Art Museum has never had a response quite like this. VOA's Julie Taboh reports.
    Video

    Video Apprenticeships Put Americans on Path Back to Work

    Trying to get more people into the U.S. workforce, the Obama administration last year announced $175 million in grants towards apprenticeship programs. VOA White House correspondent Aru Pande went inside one training center outside of Washington that has gained national recognition for helping put people on the path to employment.
    Video

    Video New Material May Reduce Concussion Effects

    As the 2016 National Football League season reaches its summit at the Super Bowl this coming Sunday (2/7), scientists are trying to learn how to more effectively protect football players from dangerous and damaging concussions. Researchers at Cardiff and Cambridge Universities say their origami-based material may solve the problem. VOA’s George Putic reports.
    Video

    Video Saudi Arabian Women's Sports Chip Away at Stereotypes

    Saudi Arabian female athletes say that sports are on the front line of busting traditions that quash women’s voices, both locally and internationally. In their hometown of Jeddah, a group of basketball players say that by connecting sports to health issues, they are encouraging women and girls to get out of their homes and participate in public life. VOA’s Heather Murdock reports.
    Video

    Video A Year Later, Fortunes Mixed for Syrians Forging New Lives in Berlin

    In April of last year, VOA followed the progress of six young Syrian refugees -- four brothers and their two friends -- as they made their way from Libya to Italy by boat, and eventually to Germany. Reporter Henry Ridgwell caught up with the refugees again in Berlin, as they struggle to forge new lives amid the turmoil of Europe's refugee crisis.
    Video

    Video Zika Virus May be Hard to Stop

    With the Zika virus spreading rapidly, the World Health Organization Monday declared Zika a global health emergency. As Alberto Pimienta reports, for many governments and experts, the worst is yet to come.