News / Africa

Mubarak Had Been Egypt's Symbol of Stability For Years

For decades, Egypt's former president Hosni Mubarak had been a symbol of stability in the Middle East, but an iron ruler at home.  

Mubarak, 84, held power for nearly 30 years, and like many Arab leaders of his time, placed friends and family in positions of power. He appeared to be grooming his son, Gamal, to succeed him until 18 days of protests in early 2011 drove Mubarak from power.

It was an almost unthinkable political end to the man who was the only president many Egyptians knew.

The son of a justice ministry official, Mr. Mubarak attended Egyptian military academies and became a pilot and later the director of Egypt's Air Academy. After the Six Day War with Israel in 1967, Mr. Mubarak was responsible for rebuilding Egypt's air force.

President Anwar Sadat named Mubarak his vice president in 1975, giving Mubarak access to foreign policy decisions including the 1978 Camp David accords with Israel.

Mubarak Follows Sadat

Mubarak succeeded Sadat following his assassination in 1981.

With huge financial incentives from the United States, Mubarak remained committed to the Camp David treaty, despite misgivings about dealing with Israel. He also mended relations with Arab nations that had shunned Egypt for its overtures to Israel.

To keep the peace at home, Mubarak instituted emergency laws to protect the country's stability and security. The "emergency" lasted for decades.

And that security came at a price, with rights groups and opponents claiming widespread torture.

When Islamic extremists killed Egyptians and foreign tourists, Mr. Mubarak cracked down.  But in doing so, he also marginalized moderate Islamists, alienating their supporters. Many accused him of corruption.

Growing Discontent

Some say it was the grooming of his son Gamal as his likely successor that proved the final straw. His critics say that act may have triggered the decline in public opinion that ultimately forced Mr. Mubarak out of office.

Despite his promises not to run for re-election, Egyptians in 2011 demanded more radical change in the wake of the Arab Spring movement that swept the region.

Amid violent protests, a defiant Mr. Mubarak resigned from office on February 11, 2011.

Mubarak and his family fled to his Red Sea resort home.

In April 2011, Mubarak and his two sons were detained for an investigation of corruption charges and their role in violent reprisals against demonstrators.

As his trial began in August, Mubarak was brought to court on a stretcher to face charges of economic corruption and illegal killing of protesters. He pled innocent. If convicted, he could face the death penalty.

You May Like

Photogallery Americans Celebrate Thanksgiving With Feasts, Festivities

Holiday traditions include turkey dinners, 'turkey trots,' American-style football and New York parade with giant balloons More

Video For Obama, Ferguson Violence is a Personal Issue

With two years left in term, analysts say, president has less to lose by taking conversation on race further More

Video Italian Espresso Expands Into Space

When Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti headed for the ISS, her countrymen worried how she would survive six months drinking only instant coffee More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
South Africa Sees Male Circumcision as Way to Reduce HIV Infectionsi
X
November 28, 2014 3:31 PM
South Africa remains plagued by AIDS despite massive government and NGO efforts on prevention and life-sustaining Anti-Retro-Viral programs. But the country has opened up another front to reduce new HIV infections: promoting circumcision. Emilie Iob reports for VOA News from a pioneering circumcision center in Orange Farm, Johannesburg.
Video

Video South Africa Sees Male Circumcision as Way to Reduce HIV Infections

South Africa remains plagued by AIDS despite massive government and NGO efforts on prevention and life-sustaining Anti-Retro-Viral programs. But the country has opened up another front to reduce new HIV infections: promoting circumcision. Emilie Iob reports for VOA News from a pioneering circumcision center in Orange Farm, Johannesburg.
Video

Video To Make A Living, Nairobi Street Vendors Face Legal Hurdles, Physical Violence

The Nairobi City Council has been accused of brutality in dealing with hawkers in the Central Business District - in order to stop them from illegally selling their wares on the streets. Lenny Ruvaga has more for VOA News from the Kenyan capital.
Video

Video For Obama, Ferguson Violence is a Personal Issue

Throughout the crisis in Ferguson, Missouri, President Barack Obama has urged calm, restraint and respect for the rule of law. But the events in Ferguson have prompted him to call — more openly than he has before — for profound changes to end the racism and distrust that he believes still exists between whites and blacks in the United States. VOA White House correspondent Luis Ramirez reports.
Video

Video Online Magazine Gets Kids Discussing Big Questions

Teen culture in America is often criticized for being superficial. But an online magazine has been encouraging some teenagers to explore deeper issues, and rewarding their efforts. VOA religion reporter Jerome Socolovsky went to this year’s Kidspirit awards ceremony in New York.
Video

Video US Community Kicks Off Thanksgiving With Parade

Thursday is Thanksgiving in the United States, a holiday whose roots go back to the country's earliest days as a British colony. One way Americans celebrate the occasion is with parades. Anush Avetisyan takes us to one such event on the day before Thanksgiving near Washington, where a community's diversity is on display. Joy Wagner narrates
Video

Video Aung San Suu Kyi: Myanmar Opposition to Keep Pushing for Constitutional Change

Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi says she and her supporters will continue pushing to amend a constitutional clause that bars her from running for president next year. VOA's Than Lwin Htun reports from the capital Naypyitaw in this report narrated by Colin Lovett.
Video

Video Mali Attempts to Shut Down Ebola Transmission Chain

Senegal and Nigeria were able to stop small Ebola outbreaks by closely monitoring those who had contact with the sick person and quickly isolating anyone with symptoms. Mali is now scrambling to do the same. VOA’s Anne Look reports from Mali on what the country is doing to shut down the chain of transmission.
Video

Video Ukraine Marks Anniversary of Deadly 1930s Famine

During a commemoration for millions who died of starvation in Ukraine in the early 1930s, President Petro Poroshenko lashed out at Soviet-era totalitarianism for causing the deaths and accused today’s Russian-backed rebels in the east of using similar tactics. VOA’s Daniel Shearf reports from Kyiv.
Video

Video Hong Kong Protests at a Crossroads

New public opinion polls in Hong Kong indicate declining support for pro-democracy demonstrations after weeks of street protests. VOA’s Bill Ide in Guangzhou and Pros Laput in Hong Kong spoke with protesters and observers about whether demonstrators have been too aggressive in pushing for change.
Video

Video US Immigration Relief Imminent for Mixed-Status Families

Tens of thousands of undocumented immigrants in the Washington, D.C., area may benefit from a controversial presidential order announced this week. It's not a path to citizenship, as some activists hoped. But it will allow more immigrants who arrived as children or who have citizen children, to avoid deportation and work legally. VOA's Victoria Macchi talks with one young man who benefited from an earlier presidential order, and whose parents may now benefit after years of living in fear.
Video

Video New Skateboard Defies Gravity

A futuristic dream only a couple of decades ago, the hoverboard – a skateboard that floats above the ground - has finally been made possible. While still not ready for mass production, it promises to become a cool mode of transport... at least over some surfaces. VOA’s George Putic reports.
Video

Video Falling Gas Prices Impact US Oil Extraction

With the price of oil now less than $80 a barrel, motorists throughout the United States are benefiting from gas prices below $3 a gallon. But as VOA’s Kane Farabaugh reports, the decreasing price of petroleum has a downside for the hydraulic fracturing industry in the United States.

All About America

AppleAndroid