News / Africa

Defendant in Rwanda Genocide Trial in France Minimizes Role

This court sketch shows Pascal Simbikangwa, a former Rwandan army captain charged with complicity in the '94 genocide, on the first day of his trial  in France, Feb. 4, 2014.
This court sketch shows Pascal Simbikangwa, a former Rwandan army captain charged with complicity in the '94 genocide, on the first day of his trial in France, Feb. 4, 2014.
Reuters
— Rwanda's former intelligence director denied charges of crimes against humanity and complicity in the 1994 genocide and told a Paris court on Wednesday he did not participate in “the descent into chaos” in his homeland.
 
On the second day of the high-profile trial, Pascal Simbikangwa sought to minimize his role in the three-month wave of bloodletting that killed some 800,000 minority Tutsis and politically moderate Hutus.
 
“I participated neither in the end of the war nor in the descent into chaos,” Simbikangwa, 54, told the court.
 
Under French law, Rwandans suspected of being involved in the genocide can be tried in a French court.
 
Coming two decades after the genocide, Simbikangwa's trial marks the first time France has put a suspected accomplice in the dock. It follows similar trials in other European countries such as Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.
 
The wheelchair of former Rwandan army captain Pascal Simbikangwa is seen before the start of his trial at Paris court, Feb. 4, 2014.The wheelchair of former Rwandan army captain Pascal Simbikangwa is seen before the start of his trial at Paris court, Feb. 4, 2014.
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The wheelchair of former Rwandan army captain Pascal Simbikangwa is seen before the start of his trial at Paris court, Feb. 4, 2014.
The wheelchair of former Rwandan army captain Pascal Simbikangwa is seen before the start of his trial at Paris court, Feb. 4, 2014.
After a 1986 car accident that left him a paraplegic, Simbikangwa left the army and joined the intelligence services. Prosecutors say that at the time of the genocide, he held the title of director and he was No. 3 in that agency.
 
“Even though I was called a director, I didn't have a role, I didn't have decision-making power,” said Simbikangwa, sitting in a wheelchair in the defendant's box. “I was a mere agent. The rest is a lot of nonsense.”
 
Prosecutors are trying to prove that Simbikangwa was a hardliner in the inner circle of former president Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu whose death in the downing of his aircraft in the spring of 1994 triggered the mass killing spree against ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus by Hutu extremists.
 
The defendant said he admired Habyarimana because “his policies were about calming things down” between the two tribes, but denied being part of the president's National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND), which played a major role in organizing the genocide.
 
The court president said witnesses questioned during the preliminary investigation refuted that argument, citing one man who said he was hired by Simbikangwa to recruit youth for the party and a woman who said she saw him at meetings.
 
“Do you believe, Mr. President, that in my wheelchair I could go to a meeting? To do what?” the defendant replied.
 
Some 50 witnesses were expected during the two-month trial to describe what they said was the Simbikangwa's role in arming and directing Hutu killers.
 
Simbikangwa, who was arrested in 2008 on the French Indian Ocean island of Mayotte, faces a life sentence if convicted with a mandatory 22 years behind bars.

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by: Ann Garrison
February 09, 2014 5:08 PM
This whole story of the Rwandan Genocide that you tell as though it were undisputed and written in stone is false, beginning with this description: " . . . three-month wave of bloodletting that killed some 800,000 minority Tutsis and politically moderate Hutus."

This description has been widely disputed, with evidence, by genocide survivors, ICTR defense lawyers, and academics. University of Michigan Professor Alan Stam pointed out, in his presentation “Understanding the Rwanda Genocide,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qi0h-EASsSU, at the Gerald Ford School of Public Policy, that the 1991 Rwandan census reported a Rwandan population of 7,590,235, including 645,170 Tutsis, and if that’s true, then this reference to “the death of more than a million Tutsis in Rwanda” isn’t plausible. The National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda’s website includes a page titled Second Rwanda General Census of Population and Housing - 1991, but, on June 2nd last year, when Jean-Pierre Dusingizemungu, President of the Ibuka genocide survivors group was claiming that a million Tutsis died in the genocide, there were no statistics on that website. And there are none there now, though it is possible to download a document tree that leads nowhere and provides no information.

Several new and carefully researched books present a more plausible interpretation of the evidence of what really happened. One is Rwanda and the New Scramble for Africa by Robin Philpot, another is Accidental Genocide, by Law Professor and former ICTR Defense Lawyer Peter Erlinder.

In Response

by: Ann Garrison
February 09, 2014 9:59 PM
Replying to myself here, with this addendum:

The VOA text of this story actually said "800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus," but if there were 645,170 Tutsis in Rwanda and 300,000 survived, as the Ibuka survivors group has claimed, then 345,170 died. So if 800,000 Rwandans died, 454,830 'moderate Hutus" must have died in what the RPF insists was "the genocide against the Tutsi."

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