News / Middle East

Column: Keep Onus on Iran to Implement Nuclear Accord

FILE - In this Feb. 2007 photo, an Iranian technician walks through the Uranium Conversion Facility just outside the city of Isfahan 410 kilometers (255 miles) south of the capital, Tehran.FILE - In this Feb. 2007 photo, an Iranian technician walks through the Uranium Conversion Facility just outside the city of Isfahan 410 kilometers (255 miles) south of the capital, Tehran.
x
FILE - In this Feb. 2007 photo, an Iranian technician walks through the Uranium Conversion Facility just outside the city of Isfahan 410 kilometers (255 miles) south of the capital, Tehran.
FILE - In this Feb. 2007 photo, an Iranian technician walks through the Uranium Conversion Facility just outside the city of Isfahan 410 kilometers (255 miles) south of the capital, Tehran.
This week’s announcement that the nuclear deal reached with Iran in late November is going to be implemented starting January 20 is welcome news on a number of fronts.
 
It marks the first time in a decade that Iran will pause its progress toward a nuclear weapons capability. In return for modest sanctions relief, the Islamic Republic has promised to limit uranium enrichment to levels far below weapons grade, neutralize a stockpile of 20 percent uranium and suspend key work on a heavy water reactor that could yield plutonium, another potential bomb fuel. All of this will be monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency under new – and for Iran – unprecedented powers of inspection.
 
Beyond these substantive achievements, implementation should pause efforts by hardliners in the United States and Iran to jeopardize a more comprehensive accord by legislating deal-killing conditions.
 
A Senate bill that has been steadily amassing co-sponsors since Congress returned from its Christmas-New Year’s break now looks unlikely to be voted on anytime soon. The bill, co-sponsored by Sens. Mark Kirk (R-Ill) and Robert Menendez (D-NJ), may have provided useful leverage to the Barack Obama administration and its negotiating partners by threatening Iran with even more draconian economic sanctions if it did not implement the Nov. 24 interim agreement. Actual passage, however, could force Iran to walk away from the negotiating table and escalate its nuclear program as well as forestalling the potential for cooperation on other, pressing regional matters.
 
While the U.S. Congress has far more autonomy than the Iranian parliament has under Iran’s theocracy, the conservative-dominated Tehran body responded to the Kirk-Menendez bill by preparing legislation requiring the Iranian atomic energy organization to enrich uranium to 60 percent. That is very close to the 90 percent required to make bombs.
 
President Obama has promised to veto new sanctions legislation if it comes to his desk. However, mere passage of the bill would show Iran that Obama cannot control even the Democratic-majority Senate. If Iran is going to fulfill its part of the interim accord and accept even tougher requirements under a comprehensive agreement, it must have confidence that the White House can also deliver.
 
The Senate bill, dubbed the “Nuclear Weapon Free Iran Act of 2013,” and a resolution sponsored by Rep. Eric Cantor (R-Va) in the House of Representatives are also dangerous because they attempt to tie the administration’s hands by moving the goalposts for agreement. The Senate bill, for example, would impose new sanctions on Iran unless the president certifies that “Iran has not conducted any tests for ballistic missiles with a range exceeding 500 kilometers” and that “Iran has not directly, or through a proxy, supported, financed, planned, or otherwise carried out an act of terrorism against the United States or United States persons or property anywhere in the world.” While it would be wonderful if Iran halted missile tests and its support for groups such as Hezbollah, such matters are beyond the purview of a nuclear agreement and would certainly be rejected by the Iranians.
 
The Senate legislation also requires that the U.S. seek an agreement that will “dismantle Iran’s illicit nuclear infrastructure” – in effect requiring that Iran end uranium enrichment. The Iranians suspended their enrichment program a decade ago but have made clear that they will not do so again even if they accept limitations on the level of enrichment and uranium stockpiles.
 
Edward Levine, a former senior Senate staffer and expert on nuclear matters, observed recently that the Senate bill “will undercut President Obama’s efforts to obtain a comprehensive solution to Iran’s nuclear activities. To the extent that it removes the diplomatic option, moreover, it will leave the United States closer to a Hobson’s choice between going to war with Iran and accepting Iran as an eventual nuclear weapons state.”
 
There are no guarantees that the current diplomatic process will produce a comprehensive agreement that verifiably prevents Iran from developing nuclear weapons for the long term. President Obama has said the chances of agreement are at best, 50-50. The Iranians will seek to preserve as much of their nuclear infrastructure as possible to keep their options open and to justify the billions of dollars in lost revenues and economic opportunity incurred by their nuclear quest.
 
If negotiations succeed, however, they will set a precedent for constructive engagement with the Iranians on other pressing issues including Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. 
 
Sen. Dianne Feinstein, (D-Calif.), told the Senate on Tuesday (Jan. 14) that former U.S. adversaries have shown an ability to change course. If new sanctions are passed now, “I sincerely believe that P5+1 [five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany] negotiations with Iran would end and with it the best opportunity in more than 30 years to make a major change in Iranian behavior – a change that could not only open all kinds of economic opportunities for the Iranian people, but change the course of a nation,” she said.
 
Legislating new sanctions – even with a delayed trigger – would remove the onus from the Iranians to follow through on their nonproliferation promises, preclude other cooperation and strengthen those in the Iranian government who doubt that the U.S. can change and give up its hostility toward Iran. If this historic effort fails, it should be Iran’s fault, not because of the United States.

Barbara Slavin

Barbara Slavin is a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s South Asia Center and a correspondent for Al-Monitor.com, a website specializing in the Middle East. She is the author of a 2007 book, Bitter Friends, Bosom Enemies: Iran, the US and the Twisted Path to Confrontation, and is a regular commentator on U.S. foreign policy and Iran on NPR, PBS, C-SPAN and the Voice of America.

You May Like

Republican Majority in Congress Off to Rough Start

Standoff over Homeland Security funding exposes philosophical, tactical problems within party More

Pakistan Blocks Baloch Activist from US Trip

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan slams Islamabad officials for stopping people from leaving country to attend human rights conference More

Video Muslims Long Thrived in North Carolina Before Students Killed

Idyll shattered February 10, when three Muslim university students living in Chapel Hill were gunned down by a neighbor More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Muslims Long Thrived in N Carolina Before Slaying of 3 Studentsi
X
Jerome Socolovsky
March 05, 2015 9:04 PM
The killings of three Muslim students in North Carolina early last month came as Muslims across the United States have felt under siege, partly as a result of terrorist attacks being committed internationally in the name of their faith. But Muslims have long thrived in university cities in this part of the American South. VOA's Jerome Socolovsky reports.
Video

Video Muslims Long Thrived in N Carolina Before Slaying of 3 Students

The killings of three Muslim students in North Carolina early last month came as Muslims across the United States have felt under siege, partly as a result of terrorist attacks being committed internationally in the name of their faith. But Muslims have long thrived in university cities in this part of the American South. VOA's Jerome Socolovsky reports.
Video

Video Fuel Shortages in Nigeria Threaten Election Campaigns

Nigeria is suffering a gas shortage as the falling oil price has affected the country’s ability to import and distribute refined fuels. Coming just weeks before scheduled March 28 elections, the shortage could have a big impact on the campaign, as Henry Ridgwell reports for VOA.
Video

Video Report: Human Rights in Annexed Crimea Deteriorating

A new report by Freedom House and the Atlantic Council of the United States says the human rights situation in Crimea has deteriorated since the peninsula was annexed by Russia in March of last year. The report says the new authorities in Crimea are discriminating against minorities, suppressing freedom of expression, and forcing residents to assume Russian citizenship or leave. Zlatica Hoke has more.
Video

Video 50 Years Later African-Americans See New Voting Rights Battles Ahead

Thousands of people will gather to mark the 50th anniversary of a historic civil rights march on March 7th in Selma, Alabama. In 1965, dozens of people were seriously injured during the event known as “Bloody Sunday,” after police attacked African-American demonstrators demanding voting rights. VOA’s Chris Simkins introduces us to some civil rights pioneers who are still fighting for voting rights in Alabama more than 50 years later.
Video

Video Craft Brewers Taking Hold in US Beer Market

Since the 1950’s, the U.S. beer industry has been dominated by a handful of huge breweries. But in recent years, the rapid rise of small craft breweries has changed the American market and, arguably, the way people drink beer. VOA’s Jeff Custer reports.
Video

Video Video Claims to Show Shia Forces in Iraq Executing Sunni Boy

A graphic mobile phone video is spreading on the Internet, claiming to show Iraqi forces or Shia militia executing a handcuffed Sunni boy. Experts have yet to verify the video, but already Islamic State followers are publicizing it across social media, playing on deep-rooted sectarian fears. VOA’s Jeff Seldin reports.
Video

Video Ukrainian Authorities Struggle to Secure a Divided Mariupol

Since last month's cease-fire went into effect, shelling around the port city of Mariupol has decreased, but it is thought pro-Russian separatists remain poised to attack. For the city’s authorities, a major challenge is gaining the trust of residents, while at the same time rooting out informants who are passing sensitive information to the rebels. Patrick Wells reports for VOA.
Video

Video Volunteer Gauge-Watchers Help Fine-Tune Weather Science

An observation system called CoCoRaHS is working to improve weather science, thanks to thousands of volunteers across the country who measure precipitation in their own backyards, then share their data through the Internet. VOA's Shelley Schlender reports.
Video

Video NASA Spacecraft Approaches a Dwarf Planet

NASA’s Dawn spacecraft will make history on Friday, March 6, when it becomes the first man-made object to orbit a dwarf planet named Ceres. It is located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, almost 500 million kilometers from Earth. Among other objectives, Dawn will try to examine two mysterious bright white spots detected on the planet’s surface. VOA’s George Putic has more.
Video

Video Young Muslims Radicalized Online

Young Muslims are being radicalized ‘in their bedrooms’ through direct contact with Islamic State or ISIL fighters via the Internet, according to terror experts. There are growing concerns that authorities and Internet providers are not doing enough to counter online extremism - which analysts say is spread by a prolific network of online supporters around the world. Henry Ridgwell reports from London.
Video

Video Positive Messaging Transforms Ethiopia's Image

Ethiopia was once known for famine and droughts. Now, headlines more often point to its fast-growing economy and its emergence as a regional peacemaker. How has Addis Ababa changed the narrative? VOA's Marthe van der Wolf reports.
Video

Video Answers Elude Families of MH370 Passengers

For the families on board Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, an airline official’s statement nearly one year ago that the plane had lost contact with air traffic control at 2:40 AM is the only thing that remains confirmed. William Ide reports.

All About America

Circumventing Censorship

An Internet Primer for Healthy Web Habits

As surveillance and censoring technologies advance, so, too, do new tools for your computer or mobile device that help protect your privacy and break through Internet censorship.
More