News / Africa

Scientists Decode Tsetse Fly Genome

Dead tsetse flies are seen in a laboratory run by the International Livestock Research Institute in Ghibe Valley, 115 miles southwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June 1, 2002. (AP Photo/Sayyid Azim)
Dead tsetse flies are seen in a laboratory run by the International Livestock Research Institute in Ghibe Valley, 115 miles southwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June 1, 2002. (AP Photo/Sayyid Azim)

Multimedia

Audio
Joe DeCapua
Scientists have mapped the genetic code of the tsetse fly, the insect responsible for African sleeping sickness.  They said the findings could lead to better repellents and control efforts and boost vaccine research.
 
The World Health Organization reports African sleeping sickness occurs in 36 sub-Saharan countries. The bite of a tsetse fly transmits parasites that could eventually reach the central nervous system causing confusion, sensory problems and poor coordination. It also disrupts the sleep cycle giving the disease its name.
 
The WHO said drug treatment is “complex,” but without it the disease is usually fatal. Efforts to control tsetse populations brought the number of new cases below 10,000 for the first time in 2009. In 2012, just over 7,200 new cases were reported.
 
Serap Aksoy is a professor of epidemiology of microbial diseases at the Yale School of Public Health. She and her colleagues in the U.S., Africa and elsewhere began searching the tsetse fly’s DNA for its genetic code 10 years ago. The WHO provided initial funding. In all, the project cost $10 million.
 
“The genetic code is the blueprint of the fly that is responsible for making all the proteins that are involved in all of its functions, essentially. These are involved in every aspect of the fly’s essential structure and function. They’re basically the parts list that an organism is made from,” said Aksoy.
 
African sleeping sickness is the name given when the disease affects people. When found in animals it’s called Nagana.
 
“Sleeping sickness, along with Nagana, have hindered public health and development of agriculture in Africa for centuries. This is a very neglected disease and hence limited amounts of research funds have gone into the study of this insect and this disease. So, we’re really excited that this will be a breakthrough for control,” she said.
 
The genome could help researchers better understand just how functions within the tsetse fly work.
 
She said, “These included, for example, olfaction, which determines smell. What we call gustation, which is taste, vision, reproduction, digestion, blood feeding, immunity and symbiosis. So, these were the kind of things, which we felt represented bottlenecks in [the] fly’s biology. And as we decoded the genome we particularly looked for proteins involved in these processes.”
 
Olfaction is important, for example, because one of the best ways to control the flies is with traps. These traps use different scents to attract them.
 
“There are many such traps that have been developed for tsetse flies. But they are not necessarily all efficient at the same rate and not available for some of the important species that transmit the human disease. Scientists can now make better traps that would be more efficient in attracting flies or they can make repellents that may be put on animals on people,” she said.
 
Aksoy said it’s not clear whether the research could lead to better treatment drugs. But, she says, the information could help vaccine development. She added the research has led to the training of many young African scientists, who will further study the tsetse fly genome.
 
Genome research currently is underway for other parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and Chagas.

You May Like

UN: 1 Million Somalis at Risk of Hunger

Group warns region is in dire need of humanitarian aid, with at least 200,000 children under age of five acutely malnourished as drought hits southern, central part of nation More

Human Rights Groups Allege Supression of Freedoms in Thailand

Thailand’s military, police have suppressed release of independent report assessing human rights in kingdom during first 100 days of latest coup More

Jennifer Lawrence Contacts FBI After Nude Photos Hacked

'Silver Linings Playbook' actress' photos were posted on image-sharing forum 4chan; Federal Bureau of Investigations is looking into matter More

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Ukraine Schools Resume Classes, Donate to Government Forcesi
X
September 02, 2014 12:58 PM
A new school year has started in Ukraine but thousands of children in the war-torn east are unable to attend because of ongoing clashes with pro-Russia rebels. In Ukraine's capital, patriotic education has become the norm along with donations to support injured security forces fighting to take back rebel-held areas. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Kyiv.
Video

Video Ukraine Schools Resume Classes, Donate to Government Forces

A new school year has started in Ukraine but thousands of children in the war-torn east are unable to attend because of ongoing clashes with pro-Russia rebels. In Ukraine's capital, patriotic education has become the norm along with donations to support injured security forces fighting to take back rebel-held areas. VOA's Daniel Schearf reports from Kyiv.
Video

Video US Detainees Want Negotiators for Freedom in North Korea

The three U.S. detainees held in North Korea were permitted to speak with foreign media Monday. The government of Kim Jong Un restricted the topics of the questions, and the interviews in Pyongyang were limited to five minutes. Each of the men asked Washington to send a representative to Pyongyang to secure his release. VOA’s Carolyn Presutti has our story.
Video

Video Internet, Technology Offer New Tools for Journalists

The Internet and rapidly evolving technology is quickly changing how people receive news and how journalists deliver it. There are now more ways to tell a story than ever before. One school in Los Angeles is teaching the next generation of journalists with the help of a state-of-the-art newsroom. Elizabeth Lee has this report.
Video

Video Turkmen From Amerli Describe Survival of IS Siege

Over the past few weeks, hundreds of Shi'ite Turkmen have fled the town of Amerli seeking refuge in the northern city of Kirkuk. Despite recent military gains after U.S. airstrikes that were coordinated with Iraqi and Kurdish forces, the situation remains dire for Amerli’s residents. Sebastian Meyer went to Kirkuk for VOA to speak to those who managed to escape.
Video

Video West Africa Ebola Vaccine Trials Possible by Early 2015

A U.S. health agency is speeding up clinical trials of a possible vaccine against the deadly Ebola virus that so far has killed more than 1,500 people in West Africa. If successful, the next step would be a larger trial in countries where the outbreak is occurring. VOA's Carol Pearson has more.
Video

Video Survivors Commemorate 70th Anniversary of Nazi Liquidation of Jewish Ghetto

When the German Nazi army occupied the Polish city of Lodz in 1939, it marked the beginning of a long nightmare for the Jewish community that once made up one third of the population. Roughly 200,000 people were forced into the Lodz Ghetto. Less than 7,000 survived. As VOA’s Kane Farabaugh reports, some survivors gathered at the Union League Club in Chicago on the 70th anniversary of the liquidation of the Lodz Ghetto to remember those who suffered at the hands of the Nazi regime.
Video

Video Cost to Raise Child in US Continues to Rise

The cost of raising a child in the United States continues to rise. In its latest annual report, the U.S. Department of Agriculture says middle income families with a child born in 2013 can expect to spend more than $240,000 before that child turns 18. And sending that child to college more than doubles that amount. VOA’s Deborah Block visited with a couple with one child in Alexandria, Virginia, to learn if the report reflects their lifestyle.
Video

Video Chaotic Afghan Vote Recount Threatens Nation’s Future

Afghanistan’s troubled presidential election continues to be rocked by turmoil as an audit of the ballots drags on. The U.N. says the recount will not be completed before September 10. Observers say repeated disputes and delays are threatening the orderly transfer of power and could have dangerous consequences. VOA correspondent Meredith Buel reports.

AppleAndroid