News / Africa

Warnings of Fatal Disease Outbreaks as Africa Warms

Health experts expect climate change to spread malaria, cholera and asthma

Darren Taylor

This is Part 4 of a 5-part series:   Climate Change
Continue to Parts: 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5

When an internationally renowned science journalist and biologist began examining links between climate change and declining human health four years ago, he had no idea what he would discover.

But Dan Ferber, who writes for Science, one of the world’s leading scientific journals, was shocked at the “dramatic scope” of the health epidemics that higher temperatures are set to cause, especially in developing countries.

“Before I began investigating climate change, I never would have thought about the connections between global warming and outbreaks of infectious diseases…. Not for a minute would I have connected the drying of forests to surges in respiratory illnesses,” said Ferber.

Rising temperatures allow the malaria-carrying mosquito to expand into once-cooler areas, like the highlands of Kenya.
Rising temperatures allow the malaria-carrying mosquito to expand into once-cooler areas, like the highlands of Kenya.

Scientists say the planet’s becoming warmer mainly because of harmful emissions, such as carbon, from the world’s factories and power stations. They say the higher temperatures are causing more extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, which in turn are resulting in severe health crises.

Ferber recently wrote a book, Changing Planet, Changing Health, with one of the world’s top tropical health specialists, Dr. Paul Epstein.

Epstein is also associate director of the Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. He’s working with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a collection of scientists mandated by the United Nations, to assess the health impacts of changing weather patterns.

Researching their book, Ferber and Epstein traveled the world, uncovering previously unknown ties between climate change and such life-threatening illnesses as malaria and cholera.

“Small changes of just a couple of degrees Celsius can be enough to change the range of infectious diseases,” said Ferber. “The threats are quite dramatic and nobody’s paying enough attention to this.”

Climatologists have estimated that temperatures in large parts of Africa will increase by four degrees C by 2100 – and possibly much sooner.

Malaria to be widespread

Ferber warned that Africa should begin preparing for significant rises in insect-borne diseases, especially malaria. He said warmer temperatures will allow mosquitoes that carry malaria to live and breed in areas that were previously too cool for them.

This is already happening in some parts of Africa, said Kevin Chika Urama, a Kenyan ecological economist who’s analyzing the effects of climate change on Africa.

He explained that people had originally moved to the highlands of East Africa, in countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, to escape from mosquitoes infected with malaria. But, with temperatures rising, Urama said the disease is now prevalent in the higher areas that were previously malaria-free.

Droughts can boost diseases like cholera, which thrive in polluted and unhygienic drinking water.
Droughts can boost diseases like cholera, which thrive in polluted and unhygienic drinking water.

Ferber’s visits to East Africa confirm this analysis. “In the central Kenya highlands there is now malaria in areas where there didn’t used to be malaria because it is warmer, which gives an advantage to the mosquitoes which can (now) live in areas that used to be too cold for them. And the malaria parasite can live inside the mosquitoes and reproduce faster (because of the warmer weather).”

According to the World Malaria Report 2010, there were 225 million cases of malaria and almost 800,000 fatalities from the disease in 2009. Most of those who died were children in Africa.

The World Health Organization estimated that a child dies from malaria on the continent every 45 seconds. The disease accounts for about 20 percent of all childhood deaths in Africa.

If Africa continues to warm, said Urama, these statistics will be far worse in the near future.

Warmer sea = more cholera

Health experts said the higher intensity and longer droughts that are expected to sweep Africa because of climate change will boost levels of water borne diseases, such as cholera. Droughts cause an absence of fresh, clean water for drinking and washing, and cholera thrives in such dirty, unhygienic conditions.

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by a bacterium. Its symptoms are profuse diarrhea and vomiting, which in turn result in dehydration and, if not treated, is sometimes fatal. Cholera is contracted primarily through drinking water or eating food contaminated by feces from an infected person.

Climatologists say forest fires caused by dry weather can lead to asthma and other respiratory illnesses.
Climatologists say forest fires caused by dry weather can lead to asthma and other respiratory illnesses.

Epstein has worked as a doctor across Africa, including in Mozambique. In the late 1970s, he found himself in the midst of a cholera epidemic at Barra on the country’s north coast. “That was the first cholera epidemic in that area in the memory of the medical profession,” said Ferber. “At the time, no one knew where this cholera was coming from and why it was such a serious outbreak.”

More than a decade later, American microbiologist Rita Colwell made groundbreaking findings about the causes of cholera epidemics. Her work led to Epstein establishing a connection between cholera and climate change.

Colwell discovered that the cholera bacterium “hid out” in the ocean. There it piggybacks on tiny animals called zooplankton that eat tinier plants called phytoplankton.

Ferber explained, “What Dr. Colwell found was that in the event of ocean waters warming, it would cause blooms of phytoplankton and the zooplankton would thus also bloom. Storms would carry the zooplankton into inland waters, carrying the cholera bacteria, and (that) would initiate cholera epidemics.”

Scientists say higher global temperatures are warming the oceans. Epstein has concluded that the warmer the oceans, the greater the possibility of cholera epidemics, and the higher their intensity, in the near future.

Asthma and smoke from fires

Ferber said elevated greenhouse gas levels and hotter weather are causing more people worldwide to suffer from respiratory diseases, especially asthma.

He explained, “Allergies trigger asthma. And allergies get worse as the temperature rises. Pollution triggers asthma – and the hotter the weather, the worse the pollution…”

All over the world, said Ferber, hotter weather and less rain are killing forests. This, he emphasized, has serious implications for people’s health. “If you turn forests into tinder, you get large increases in forest fires and large increases in smoke in the atmosphere. Smoke…causes increased risk of heart attack and increased respiratory problems.…”

Health authorities in Russia estimated that almost 60,000 people died as a result of the violent heat wave that struck the country last year. They said a large proportion of this toll died from respiratory stress as a result of inhaling smoke from the many forest fires that erupted during the intense heat.

End the ‘gambling’

As a first step to a healthier world, Ferber and Epstein want to see the creation of a new global treaty that commits all countries to drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions and to embracing renewable, clean energies.

If this doesn’t happen soon, said Ferber, the world will continue gambling with its survival, and it will be filled with much more disease and death than it currently is.

“We have solutions available that can both help the global economy and help mitigate climate change and adapt to what’s coming,” he said, adding, “The good news is that by moving towards renewable energy solutions we’ll create the basis of a 21st century economy. Simultaneously we’ll create the basis of wellness for people throughout the world and preserve the world’s natural resources, without which we will all perish eventually.”

You May Like

Video Five Patients Given Experimental Ebola Drug Said To Be Improving

Experimental drugs have been tried on six people: three Westerners and now, three African pyhysicians More

Video In Ukraine, Fear and Distrust Remain Where Fighting has Stopped

As Ukrainian military reclaims control of eastern cities residents rebuild their lives, but many say everyone is being treated with suspicion More

Video In Rural Kenya, Pressure Builds Against Female Circumcision

Girls learn to object; FGM practitioners face penalties from jail sentences to stiff fines More

This forum has been closed.
Comments
     
There are no comments in this forum. Be first and add one

Featured Videos

Your JavaScript is turned off or you have an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.
Five Patients Given Experimental Ebola Drug Said to Be Improvingi
X
Carol Pearson
August 19, 2014 11:43 PM
The World Health Organization has approved the use of experimental treatments for Ebola patients in West Africa. The Ebola outbreak there is unprecedented, the disease deadly. The number of people who have died from Ebola has surpassed 1,200. VOA's Carol Pearson reports on the ethical considerations of allowing experimental drugs to be used.
Video

Video Five Patients Given Experimental Ebola Drug Said to Be Improving

The World Health Organization has approved the use of experimental treatments for Ebola patients in West Africa. The Ebola outbreak there is unprecedented, the disease deadly. The number of people who have died from Ebola has surpassed 1,200. VOA's Carol Pearson reports on the ethical considerations of allowing experimental drugs to be used.
Video

Video In Ukraine, Fear and Distrust Remain Where Fighting has Stopped

As the Ukrainian military reclaims control of eastern cities from pro-Russian separatists, residents are getting a chance to rebuild their lives. VOA's Gabe Joselow reports from the town of Kramatorsk in Donetsk province, where a sense of fear is still in the air, and distrust of the government in Kyiv still runs deep.
Video

Video China Targets Overseas Assets of Corrupt Officials

As China presses forward with its anti-graft effort, authorities are targeting corrupt officials who have sent family members and assets overseas. The efforts have stirred up a debate at home on exactly how many officials take that route and how likely it is they will be caught. Rebecca Valli has this report.
Video

Video Leading The Fight Against Islamic State, Kurds Question Iraqi Future

Western countries including the United States have begun arming the Kurdish Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq to aid their battle against extremist Sunni militants from the Islamic State. But there are concerns that a heavily-armed Kurdistan Regional Government, or KRG, might seek to declare independence and cause the break-up of the Iraqi state. As Henry Ridgwell reports from London, the KRG says it will only seek greater autonomy from Baghdad.
Video

Video In Rural Kenya, Pressure Builds Against Female Circumcision

In some Kenyan communities, female genital mutilation remains a rite of passage. But activists are pushing back, with education for girls and with threats of punishment those who perform the circumcision. Mohammed Yusuf looks at the practice in the rural eastern community of Tharaka-Nithi.
Video

Video For Obama, Racial Violence is Personal Issue

The racial violence in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson is presenting U.S. President Barack Obama with an issue to which he has a deep personal connection. To many Americans, Obama's election as America's first black president marked a turning point in race relations in the United States, and Obama has made ending the violence a policy priority. On Monday he issued a new call for calm and understanding. Luis Ramirez reports from the White House.
Video

Video Clinton-Obama Relationship Could Impact 2016 Election

President Barack Obama and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton have a long and complicated relationship. That relationship took another turn recently when Clinton criticized the president’s foreign policy. VOA National Correspondent Jim Malone reports there is renewed attention on the Clinton-Obama relationship as Hillary Clinton considers running for
Video

Video Iran Looks to Maintain Influence in Baghdad With New Shia PM

Washington and Tehran share the goal of stopping Syrian-based militants in Iraq. But experts say it's Iran, not the United States, that will most influence how the new government in Baghdad approaches internal reforms and the war in Syria. VOA State Department Correspondent Scott Stearns has the story.

AppleAndroid