The United Nations' atomic watchdog hasn't been able to access data important to monitoring Iran's nuclear program since late February when the Islamic Republic started restricting international inspections of its facilities, the agency said Monday.
The International Atomic Energy Agency reported in a confidential document distributed to member countries and seen by The Associated Press that it has "not had access to the data from its online enrichment monitors and electronic seals, or had access to the measurement recordings registered by its installed measurement devices" since February 23.
While the IAEA and Iran earlier acknowledged the restrictions limited access to surveillance cameras at Iranian facilities, Monday's report indicated they went much further. The IAEA acknowledged it could only provide an estimate of Iran's overall nuclear stockpile as it continues to enrich uranium at its highest level ever.
Iran started limiting inspections in a bid to put pressure on the government of U.S. President Joe Biden to lift crippling sanctions reimposed after then-President Donald Trump pulled out of the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran unilaterally in 2018.
Under the deal, the IAEA placed around 2,000 tamper-proof seals on nuclear material and equipment. Those seals communicated electronically to inspectors. Automated measuring devices also provided real-time data from the program.
Talks are currently underway in Vienna for the U.S. to rejoin the deal, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA.
Since the U.S. withdrawal from the agreement, Iran has been steadily violating its various restrictions, including on the types of centrifuges it is allowed to use, the amount of enriched uranium it is allowed to stockpile, and the purity to which it is allowed to enrich.
In the IAEA report, the agency for the first time released estimates of Iran's stockpile rather than precise figures, saying that as of May 22, Iran's total stockpile was 3,241 kilograms, up about 273 kilograms from the last quarterly report.
That was down from an increase of nearly 525 kilograms reported in the last quarterly report.
Though it wasn't immediately clear what led to the decrease, it comes as an explosion in April at its underground Natanz nuclear facility affected centrifuges there. Iran has yet to offer a full accounting of what happened in an attack it described as "nuclear terrorism." Israel, which is widely suspected of carrying out the assault, hasn't commented publicly on it.
The nuclear deal signed in 2015 with the United States, Germany, France, Britain, China and Russia only permits Iran to keep a total stockpile of 202.8 kilograms of enriched uranium.
The agency said the current stockpile includes 62.8 kilograms of uranium enriched to 20% purity, and 2.4 kilograms enriched to 60% purity — well above the 3.67% purity allowed under the JCPOA.
Despite Iran's violations of the deal, the other nations involved have stressed that the agreement was still important, as it allowed international inspectors to continue their surveillance of Iran's nuclear facilities.
Under a confidential agreement called an "Additional Protocol" with Iran, the IAEA collects and analyzes images from a series of surveillance cameras installed at Iranian nuclear sites. Those cameras helped it monitor Tehran's program to see if it is complying with the nuclear deal.
Iran's hard-line Parliament in December approved a bill that would suspend part of U.N. inspections of its nuclear facilities if European signatories didn't provide relief from oil and banking sanctions by February.
IAEA Director General Rafael Grossi was able to negotiate a last-minute deal in February, however, that promised the IAEA it would hold onto footage shot by its surveillance cameras and would hand them over if diplomats reached a deal in Vienna to lift the sanctions it faces. Otherwise, Tehran said it would delete the images.
That deal has yet to come, but Grossi was able to negotiate a one-month extension last week.
That means his agency still can't access the images taken by the cameras for the time being but could regain access to the material if a deal is reached — a situation Grossi called an emergency measure that was "not ideal."
The last-minute discussions further underscored the narrowing window for the U.S. and others to reach terms with Iran as it presses a tough stance with the international community over its atomic program.
The negotiations and tensions over the program come as Iran faces an upcoming June 18 presidential election to select the replacement for the relative moderate Hassan Rouhani, whose administration reached the 2015 nuclear deal. Analysts believe hard-liners have an edge going into the vote.