Spain's King Felipe VI and Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez are among hundreds of people attending ceremonies in Barcelona to mark the first anniversary of terror attacks that killed 16 people.
The commemorations began Friday with a flower-laying ceremony on the Catalan capital's famed Las Ramblas promenade, where a van mowed down scores of pedestrians.
The monarch and Queen Letizia, families of the victims, and national and local political leaders were among those attending the events.
The van killed 14 and another victim was fatally stabbed in the Barcelona attack.
Another person died of stab wounds in a separate attack the next day in nearby Cambrils.
The attacks were claimed by the Islamic State group.
Spanish authorities say they dismantled the cell, with its members either dead or arrested.