French troops have retaken Gao, Timbuktu and now Kidal, the last major stronghold of Islamist militants in the northern Mali.
But Pierre Boilley says the fight is far from over, and there is a long way to go. Boilley is a professor of history and head of the center for African languages studies at the University of Paris – One / Pantheon Sorbonne.
Boilley spoke to English to Africa reporter Mariama Diallo about the history of the Tuaregs, their grievances, and what happens next with the other rebels groups.
Listen to an interview with Professor Pierre Boilley on the Tuaregs in Mali