About 200 passengers were thought to be aboard the Sudan Airways plane when it landed in bad weather late Tuesday.
There are conflicting reports about the number of fatalities, but state-run television in Sudan says about 100 people died in the accident.
Emergency services rushed to the scene and by late Tuesday had brought the fire under control.
The flight originated in Damascus, Syria, and made a stopover in Amman, Jordan, before flying to Khartoum.
Sudan has a poor aviation record.
In May, a plane crashed in a remote area of southern Sudan, killing 23 people, including key members of the southern Sudanese government.
In July 2003, a Sudan Airways plane crashed soon after takeoff near Port Sudan, killing 115 people.Some information for this report was provided by AFP, AP and Reuters.