More than 10,000 visitors were ordered out of Yellowstone as unprecedented flooding tore through the northern half of the nation's oldest national park, washing out bridges and roads and sending an employee bunkhouse miles downstream, officials said Tuesday. Remarkably, no one was reported injured or killed.
The only visitors left in the massive park straddling three states were a dozen campers still making their way out of the backcountry.
The park, which celebrates its 150th anniversary this year, could remain closed as long as a week, and northern entrances may not reopen this summer, Superintendent Cam Sholly said.
"The water is still raging," said Sholly, who said more wet weather was forecast this weekend that could cause additional flooding.
The flooding hit historic levels in the Yellowstone River after days of rain and rapid snowmelt and wrought havoc across parts of southern Montana and northern Wyoming, where it washed away cabins, swamped small towns, knocked out power and flooded homes. It hit the park just as a summer tourist season that draws millions of visitors was ramping up.
Instead of marveling at the site of grizzlies and bison, burbling thermal pools and the regular blast of Old Faithful's geyser, tourists found themselves witnessing nature at its most unpredictable as the Yellowstone River crested in a chocolate brown torrent that washed away anything in its path.
"It is just the scariest river ever," Kate Gomez of Santa Fe, New Mexico, said Tuesday. "Anything that falls into that river is gone."
Waters were only starting to recede Tuesday and the full extent of the destruction wasn't yet known.
Sholly said the backpackers who remained in the park had been contacted. Crews were prepared to evacuate them by helicopter it needed, he said.
Sholly added he didn't believe the park had ever shut down from flooding.
Gomez and her husband were among hundreds of tourists stuck in Gardiner, Montana, a town of about 800 residents at the park's north entrance. The town was cut off for more than a day until Tuesday afternoon, when crews reopened part of a washed away two-lane road.
While the flooding can't directly be attributed to climate change, it came as the Midwest and East Coast sizzle from a heat wave and other parts of the West burn from an early wildfire season amid a persistent drought that has increased the frequency and intensity of fires that are having broader impacts. Smoke from a fire in the mountains of Flagstaff, Arizona, could be seen in Colorado.
Rick Thoman, a climate specialist at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, said a warming environment makes extreme weather events more likely than they would have been "without the warming that human activity has caused."
Heavy rain on top of melting mountain snow pushed the Yellowstone, Stillwater and Clarks Fork rivers to record levels Monday, according to the National Weather Service.
Officials in Yellowstone and in several southern Montana counties were assessing damage from the storms, which also triggered mudslides and rockslides. Montana Gov. Greg Gianforte declared a statewide disaster.
Some of the worst damage happened in the northern part of the park and Yellowstone's gateway communities in southern Montana. National Park Service photos of northern Yellowstone showed a mudslide, washed out bridges and roads undercut by churning floodwaters of the Gardner and Lamar rivers.
In Red Lodge, Montana, a town of 2,100 that's a popular jumping-off point for a scenic, winding route into Yellowstone, a creek running through town jumped its banks and swamped the main thoroughfare, leaving trout swimming in the street a day later under sunny skies.
Residents described a harrowing scene where the water went from a trickle to a torrent in just a few hours.
The water toppled telephone poles, knocked over fences and carved deep fissures in the ground through a neighborhood of hundreds of houses. The power was knocked out but restored by Tuesday, though there was still no running water in the neighborhood.
The rains hit just as area hotels have filled up in recent weeks with summer tourists. More than 4 million visitors were tallied by the park last year. The wave of tourists doesn't abate until fall, and June is typically one of Yellowstone's busiest months.
Mark Taylor, owner and chief pilot of Rocky Mountain Rotors, said his company had airlifted about 40 paying customers over the past two days from Gardiner, including two women who were "very pregnant."
Taylor spoke as he ferried a family of four adults from Texas, who wanted to do some more sightseeing before heading home.
"I imagine they're going to rent a car and they're going to go check out some other parts of Montana — somewhere drier," he said.
At a cabin in Gardiner, Parker Manning of Terre Haute, Indiana, watched the roiling Yellowstone River floodwaters just outside his door. Entire trees and even a lone kayaker floated by.
In early evening, he shot video as the waters ate away at the opposite bank where a large brown house was precariously perched.
In a large cracking sound heard over the river's roar, the house tipped into the waters and was pulled into the current. Sholly said it floated downriver 8 kilometers before sinking.
The Montana National Guard said Monday it sent two helicopters to southern Montana to help with the evacuations.
The Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs crested at 4.2 meters Monday, higher than the previous record of 3.5 meters set in 1918, according to the National Weather Service.
Yellowstone got 6 centimeters of rain Saturday, Sunday and into Monday. The Beartooth Mountains northeast of Yellowstone got as much as 10 centimeters, according to the National Weather Service.