Suriname's President Desi Bouterse, a former military ruler convicted of drug trafficking in the Netherlands, officially secured his second term on Tuesday.
Bouterse's National Democratic Party (NDP) in May won a slim majority in the small South American country's National Assembly, all but guaranteeing him another five-year period.
With no other candidates, parliament automatically ratified his presidency on Tuesday, given the required quorum of 34 members present was met.
Convicted in absentia of drug trafficking by a court in the Netherlands in 1999, former sergeant Bouterse always has denied any wrongdoing.
Suriname, on South America's northeastern shoulder, won independence from the Netherlands in 1975 and is a gold and bauxite miner with a nascent oil industry.