Aid money urgently needs to be redirected to the poorest countries in order to reach the United Nations' goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, according to a report.
The London-based Overseas Development Institute (ODI) says middle-income countries receive more aid than the 30 poorest nations. It also warns that at least 400 million people will still be living on less than $1.90 a day, despite government pledges to eliminate all extreme poverty.
In northern Ethiopia, teams of workers dig irrigation channels through orchards and grain fields. Such projects have turned arid plains into fertile farmland, which has quadrupled agricultural production.
The report from the ODI credits Ethiopia's "Productive Safety Net Program," launched in 2005, with lifting 1.4 million people out of extreme poverty. It also enabled Ethiopia to avoid another famine during severe droughts in 2010 and 2015.
In contrast, neighboring Uganda has seen extreme poverty levels rise recently, after a rapid reduction in previous years.
"One of the reasons is because climate change is starting to have an impact in that country," said Marcus Manuel, author of the ODI report. "Now in Ethiopia, they've managed, with a lot of support partly from the U.S., to have programs that support farmers when a sudden climate or weather event happens. In Uganda, they didn't. So when they had a drought, that led to a real increase in poverty. So it's a matter of having the right systems in place."
Ethiopia's program, the largest of any low-income country, pays beneficiaries to work on public works projects such as irrigation, roads, schools and health clinics, which helps to create long-term poverty relief.
Such programs are vital in ending extreme poverty, according to the ODI report. The report says there is an annual funding shortfall of $125 billion in the three core sectors of education, health and what it terms social protection transfers, or welfare.
"You need to do economic growth to do part of things, and you also need investment in the social sectors," Manuel said. "You need to have both sides of the coin to make this work. Donors are investing both in growth and in social sectors, but they're not investing it in the right countries to nearly the extent that's needed. And, in particular, in this report we've identified 29 countries which can't afford the investment needed in the social sectors and donors are not giving enough money to that group of countries."
The statistics show middle-income countries receive more aid than poorer countries, whose share of global aid has fallen over the past six years from 30 percent to 24 percent.
In addition to better aid allocation, the report says more donor nations need to reach the U.N. goal of allocating at least 0.7 percent of gross domestic product to aid budgets. Without urgent action, the authors warn the goal of eliminating extreme poverty by 2030 will remain out of reach.